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Analysis of X chromosome inactivation pattern in bovine extra-embryonic tissue

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Fernando Galati Sabio
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências (IBIOC/SB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Lygia da Veiga Pereira Carramaschi; Ana Maria Fraga; Angela Maria Vianna Morgante
Advisor: Lygia da Veiga Pereira Carramaschi

In X chromosome inactivation (XCI), one of the two X chromosomes present in female mammals is transcriptionally silenced, resulting in a dosage compensation mechanism. The XCI can occur randomly, so that each cell chooses randomly which one will be the inactivated X chromosome: paternal (pX) or maternal (mX); or dependent on parental origin of X chromosome, ie, imprinted. While in female marsupials the inactivation occurs in an imprinted fashion, with the Xp inactivated in all tissues, both somatic and extra-embryonic, in the mammalian eutherians XCI in the somatic tissues occurs randomly. However some eutherians still retain the imprinted XCI mechanism exclusively in extra-embryonic tissues, such as rats and mice. In humans, the controversy of the XCI in placenta was re-evaluated by our group. Using a broader analysis, a random pattern was identified, in contrast to the previously published works. It demonstrated the importance of conducting a comprehensive analysis to determine the profile of X chromosome (Moreira de Mello et al., 2010). In cattle the pattern of XCI in bovine placenta is unclear. It was verified by analyzing the expression of a single gene, and the authors concluded that the pattern was imprinted (Xue et al., 2002). Because the analysis of a single gene may not represent the epigenetic state of an entire chromosome, the pattern of XCI in cattle extra-embryonic tissues is an important issue to be clarified. In the present study the cattle X chromosome was analyzed searching for SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) located in coding regions of genes expressed in extra-embryonic tissue. So that, by analyzing the allele-specific expression it is possible to determine the X chromosome expression patter. The preset results show a bi-allelic expression pattern. This indicates that in different cells populations, different X chromosomes are active. Thus, the XCI in extra-embryonic tissues of bovines occurs randomly, similar to the human pattern but different to that verified in rats and mice. This work shows the importance of a global analysis of the gene expression in X chromosome, through which it can trace the closest activity profile as possible to reality. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/16399-4 - Analysis of the pattern of X chromosome inactivation in bovine extra-embryonic tissue
Grantee:Fernando Galati Sábio
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master