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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

What makes ecosystem restoration expensive? A systematic cost assessment of projects in Brazil

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Brancalion, Pedro H. S. [1] ; Meli, Paula [1] ; Tymus, Julio R. C. [2] ; Lenti, Felipe E. B. [3] ; Benini, Rubens M. [2] ; Silva, Ana Paula M. [3] ; Isernhagen, Ingo [4] ; Holl, Karen D. [5]
Total Authors: 8
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz Coll Agr, Dept Forest Sci, Av Padua Dias 11, BR-13418900 Piracicaba, SP - Brazil
[2] Nature Conservancy, Av Paulista 2439, BR-01311936 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[3] Inst Appl Econ Res IPEA, Setor Bancario Sul Q 1 Ed BNDES, BR-70076900 Brasilia, DF - Brazil
[4] Brazilian Agr Res Corp EMBRAPA, Rodovia MT-222, Km 2, 5, BR-78550000 Sinop, MT - Brazil
[5] Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Environm Studies, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 - USA
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: Biological Conservation; v. 240, DEC 2019.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Limited funding is a major barrier to implementing ambitious global restoration commitments, so reducing restoration costs is essential to upscale restoration. The lack of rigorous analyses about the major components and drivers of restoration costs limit the development of alternatives to reduce costs and the selection of the most cost-effective methods to achieve restoration goals. We conducted detailed restoration cost assessments for the three most widespread biomes in Brazil (Amazon, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest) and estimated the restoration costs associated with implementing Brazil's National Plan for Native Vegetation Recovery (12M hectares). Most surveys (60-90%) reported using the costly methods of planting seedlings or sowing seeds throughout the site, regardless of the biome. Natural regeneration and assisted regeneration approaches were an order of magnitude cheaper but were reported in < 15% of projects. The vast majority of tree planting and direct seeding costs were incurred during the implementation phase, and nearly 80% of projects ended maintenance within 30 months. We estimated a price tag of US\$0.7-1.2 billion per year until 2030 to implement Brazil's restoration plan depending on the area that recovers through natural regeneration. Our results offer valuable insights for developing strategies to make restoration cheaper and to increase its cost-effectiveness for achieving diverse benefits in Brazilian ecosystems. Our survey also provides a starting point for sound assessments of restoration costs and their drivers in other biomes, which are needed to reduce the financial barriers to scaling up restoration at a global scale. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/00052-9 - Understanding ecological, legal and social aspects of the forest-water relation with importance for ecosystem services
Grantee:Paula Meli
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate