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Quantum Hall ferromagnetism via density functional theory

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Author(s):
Gerson Ferreira Júnior
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Carlos.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Física de São Carlos (IFSC/BT)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Jose Carlos Egues de Menezes; Belita Koiller; Ivan Costa da Cunha Lima; Luiz Nunes de Oliveira; Antonio Jose Roque da Silva
Advisor: Jose Carlos Egues de Menezes
Abstract

The quantum Hall effect arises in two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) under high magnetic fields B. The magnetic field quantizes the planar motion of the electrons into cyclotron orbits given by the Landau levels. In this regime the transversal (Hall) resistivity ρxy shows plateaus as a function of B at integer sub-multiples of e2/h, i.e., ρxy = ν-1 e2/h, where n is the filling factor of the Landau levels. The longitudinal resistivity ρxx shows peaks at the transition between the plateaus of ρxy. In principle, ρxx is an indirect measure of the density of states at the Fermi level g(εF), so that the peaks indicate when the Fermi level εF crosses a Landau level. Therefore, a density-B-field diagram n2D-B of the ρxx ~ g(εF) peaks shows a topological map of the electronic structure of the system. In two-subband systems, ρxx( n2D, B) shows ringlike structures due to crossings of spin-split Landau levels from distinct subbands [experiments from the group of Prof. Jiang (UCLA)] that could lead to ferromagnetic instabilities. We study these instabilities using the density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the electronic structure, and Ando\'s model (Kubo formalism) for ρxx and ρxy. At higher temperatures (340 mK) we also obtain the ringlike structures in ρxx. At lower temperatures (70 mK) we see broken rings due to quantum Hall ferromagnetic phase transitions. Tilting B by theta with respect to the 2DEG normal we find that the ring structure shrinks. Our results show that the angle of full collapse depends on a competition between the exchange term from the Coulomb interaction (Pauli principle) and the anticrossing of Landau levels due to the finite angle theta. Additionally, at the instabilities we observe hysteresis. Sweeping the B field up or down near these regions we obtain two different solutions with distinct total energies, corresponding to the ground state and an excited state of the many-body system. This result, together with previous results of our group [Freire & Egues (2007)], are the first realizations of the theoretical prediction of the possibility of excited states as local minima of the ground state energy functional [Perdew & Levy (1985)]. The model proposed here shows an excellent agreement with the experiments. Additionally, the systematic and experimentally verified observation of excited states corroborates the predictions of Perdew & Levy. Similar ideas as presented here when applied to the electronic structure and conductance of quantum wires with an in-plane magnetic field show ferromagnetic instabilities at crossings of the wire transverse modes [Master Thesis of Filipe Sammarco, IFSC/USP], also with excellent experimental agreement. This strengthen the range of validity of the model proposed in this Thesis. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 05/04777-3 - Quantum Hall ferromagnetism in two-dimensional electron gases
Grantee:Gerson Ferreira Júnior
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)