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Evaluation of the impact of cyanobacterial blooms and pollutants in the aquatic environment in vivo and in vitro in teleost fish and its application in human testicular organoids

Abstract

Brazil has approximately 13.6% of the world's fresh water, represented by 12 Basins, concentrated specifically in 3 large basins, the Basins Amazon, São Francisco and Paraná. The state of São Paulo has an abundance of rivers, and its hydrographic basins are threatened by anthropic actions. Therefore, the increase in pollutants and the lack of inspection of the emission of chemical compounds in natural environments, has increased the risks and mortality of natural species and, consequently, human contamination. In this case, using a native fish species is essential to understand the possible effects of environmental contaminants on physiological processes, and to develop biomarkers for contamination. In this work, we will assess the toxicity of water, bioaccumulation in muscle, liver, and protein levels in the gonads of fish (Astyanax altiparanae) exposed in vivo into different rivers of the Botucatu (SP) region. We will attempt to identify possible altered biological pathways, as well as possible biomarkers for environmental contamination. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated the viability of 3D organoids as models for toxicity studies and for infectious diseases. The organoids are originated from stem cells (specific tissue) and somatic cells that recapitulate the de novo morphogenesis of the original tissue and mimic the complex cellular and molecular interactions that exist in it. In this way, these models are powerful tools to study development, cellular interactions, and regulation in your cellular niche. The use of human testicular organoids may be useful for toxicological studies to understand the mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants (biphenyl A, phthalates, glyphosate, organochlorines, heavy metals and others) in spermatogenesis. In addition, they can have great potential in studies of the development of male contraceptives and identify reprotoxic compounds. Based on that, we will extrapolate the in vivo analyzes for human organoids exposed to the main environmental contaminants found by evaluating the spermatogonial stem cell, their differentiation and cell proliferation as the endogenous response and possible epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation, modifications in the histone tails, to identify possible mechanisms of action and possible biomarkers. Additionally, we hope to contribute to the elucidation of new mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants found in the region of Botucatu, SP and in the awareness and inspection of the dumping of industrial and domestic waste in natural environments. (AU)

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