Brazil is considered the richest country in terms of distribution of freshwater, possessing a large river system, distributed in eight major basins with a great diversity of fish species. Erythrinidae is a small family group of Characiformes, represented by only three genera: Erythrinus, Hoplerythrinus and Hoplias. In Brazil, Hoplerythrinus group is considered monotypic, represented only by Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus. The chromosomal studies for this group are scarce, given the wide distribution in which the species can be found, and appears to have a significant diversity. Most studies to date is related to the classic chromosomal characterization, having been little explored by in situ hybridization, mainly in an attempt to better understand the genomic organization of repetitive sequences and relationships between the different cytotypes previously described, through the possible chromosomal rearrangements occurred and its biogeography. Thus, this project proposes to try to understand the relationships between the different cytotypes, as well as the processes of diversification between them, the biogeographic relationships, the genomic organization of repetitive elements and possible taxonomic problems, characterized by techniques of classical cytogenetics and molecular using repetitive DNA sequences as described above. Will be collected populations of H. unitaeniatus from different Brazilian hydrographic basins: Paraná / Paraguay, Araguaia-Tocantins, Amazonas and São Francisco. The data from this comparative study will contribute new information regarding the diversification and evolution of populations of H. unitaeniatus.
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