In tropical countries, the environmental impact of eucalyptus forests is widely debated and acceptance of these crops has encouraged various technical and scientific debates. The Atlantic Forest is among the most threatened biomes of Brazil, mainly by exploitation of its natural resources and the land use by agriculture, cattle ranching, forestry, and urban infrastructure. Planted forests, in order to meet human needs for wood and pulp, led eucalyptus to the status of most used species for these purposes. In the Paraíba Valley (SP), a region whose development model promoted social and environmental liabilities, the actual emphasis in the agriculture sector is the expansion of forestry. In the North Coast (SP), region with significant areas of Atlantic forest and conservation units, the highlight is the strong potential for economic development and tourism. These contiguous regions, strategically important for the State of São Paulo, with natural, social, and economic potentials, present vulnerabilities related to the dynamics of interactions between nature and society. To identify and to understand the network of connections (environmental, political, and socioeconomic), dynamics, vulnerabilities, and resilience associated with land use by planted forests, will expand the understanding about environmental and social changes in local and regional scales.
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