Colletotrichum sp. is the causal agent of anthracnose on soybean. Morphologically-based identification of Colletotrichum species has always been problematic, because there are few reliable characters and many of these characters are plastic. Recent papers have shown that a strong, solid characterization is obtained when different methods are employed together, the so-called polyphasic approach. This study will apply the polyphasic approach on a Colletotrichum population associated to soybean in Brazil. Around 80 isolates will be studied in order of precisely characterize the etiology of soybean anthracnose in Brazil. Accurate species identification is critical to understand the epidemiology and to develop effective control measures of these diseases. Characterizations will be standardized according to a recent paper, allowing reproduction and comparison with other studies. Molecular (multi-loci phylogeny), cultural, morphological and pathogenic characterizations will be performed. Results will allow accurate definition of the etiology, showing whether the studied anthracnose is caused just by one or a complex of species. Besides, it will be possible to analyze inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships among the isolates. This will allow drawing inferences regarding the evolution among the revealed species.
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