The role of the intestinal mucosal immune system is to differentiate pathogenic stimulus, and subsequently induce a specific response or tolerance mechanism. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of antigen-presenting cells that avidly capture, process and present antigens to T cells. Several types of DCs were identified on the intestinal mucosa, and between them there are the called tolerogenic dendritic cells (TCDS). TCDs are involved in the induction of tolerance because they are producing TGFb1 that promotes the differentiation of T cells into regulatory T cells (Treg). The induction of tolerance to protein antigens is an active process that occurs by administering antigens orally. In oral tolerance, it is possible to activate DCs of Peyer's patches that direct suppression of T lymphocytes. In the last years there were create nanometric size particles including carbon nanotubes (NT). The NT are a new class of molecules has attracted attention for its potential application in biological systems. Due to its small size the NT can be internalized by different cells, demonstrating their potential use in diagnosis and treatment of various pathological conditions. Recently, it was demonstrated that organic molecules can interact and adsorb to the surface of these nanoparticles. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the induction of tolerance to ovalbumin (OVA) in conjunction with NT resulted in suppression of the specific immune response, and significantly higher than that induced only by administration of the antigen. In this context, the aim of this work is to evaluate the pattern of tDCS in Peyer's patches of tolerant animals. It is also possible to verify the induction of Tregs by tDCS isolated from tolerant mice that ingested NT.
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