Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrial tissues grow outside the uterus, most commondly in pelvis, peritonium, ovary, ureter, intestine or bladder. It's a common ginecological disease, occurring in 10-15% of women in reproductive phase. The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. When it comes to the role of immunological system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a lot of alterations have been detected facilitating the implantation, proliferation, and angiogenesis of endometrial tissue. It's not yet clarified how endometrial cells, from the menstrual fluid, signals the immunological response and it's subsequent activation. Probably the regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the key controllers to this imune response. This specialized imune cells, control and suppress imune response including T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells proliferation and cytokine release. FoxP3 (Forkhead-winged helix trancription factor family member) was identified as the gene with greater influence on controlling the Tregs function and development. In spite of Treg's crucial role in immune response suppression and regulation, these cells populations were little investigated in eutopic and ectopic endometrium in pacients with endometrioses. Interestingly, the concentration of Tregs in peritoneal fluid was superior in pacients with endometriosis than in non carriers. A new functional marker of Treg cells has been studied, the CD39, an ectoenzime that, in combination with CD73, is envolved in adenosine production. The relation CD39/ adenosine is important for the balance between activation and regulation of immune response. When released by dam edged or apoptotic cells, the ATP is a "danger signal" that activates the adaptive imune system. The reduction of pericelular ATP by CD39 is important for modulating imune response. Adenosine is an imunossupressor nucleotide that suppresses cytokine production and imune response. The objective of this research is to verify the frequency of supressors Treg CD39+ cells in pacients with endometriosis.
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