The group of systemic mycoses, including paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis, among others, caused death in 3,583 individuals between 1996-2006 in Brazil. Paracoccidioidomycosis was the most important with approximately 51.2% of cases followed by histoplasmosis with 4.8% in non-HIV patients. Considering AIDS as the underlying cause of death and endemic systemic mycoses as associated conditions, histoplasmosis appears at 10.1% and PCM at 1.4%. The use of antifungal drugs is the best tool currently available for the treatment of these infections. However, patients are usually undergoing long periods of treatment, and relapses and sequelae are frequent. Vaccine models developed against aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis have been described, however, an effective vaccine does not yet exist. In relation to PCM, our group has been working on the development of a peptide vaccine (P10), originating from a fraction of the immunodominant glycoprotein gp43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, a mutation in the gp43 gene present in Paracoccidioides lutzii impairs the use of P10 in the control of infection by this species. This project will address the prospection of epitopes with vaccine potential and the development of strategies in the presence / absence of antifungal drugs. Thus, advances are expected in the formulation of a vaccine strategy against P. lutzii, in addition to consolidating our knowledge about the immunopathogenesis of this mycosis with importance in public health in Brazil.
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