Advanced search
Start date
Betweenand

M1 and M2 macrophage polarization in individuals with low and high cardiorespiratory fitness: potential role of adipose tissue, aging and leptin

Grant number: 19/26378-6
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)
Effective date (Start): October 01, 2020
Effective date (End): February 28, 2023
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Principal Investigator:Fábio Santos de Lira
Grantee:Caíque de Figueiredo
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Presidente Prudente. Presidente Prudente , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Derived from a bone marrow myeloid lineage, monocytes are blood cells of the immune system that, when infiltrated into tissues, differentiate into anti-inflammatory (M2) or pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages. Polarization for M1 phenotype is enhanced in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese and elderly subjects, exhibits potential in the production and release of inflammatory cytokines, favors the persistence of chronic low-grade inflammation, and exhibits predominance of glycolytic metabolism. On the other hand, the M2 phenotype is mostly found in WAT of trained eutrophic young individuals, furthermore, it also secretes cytokines that mediate the anti-inflammatory response, presents oxidative metabolism and its polarization is marked by the practice of physical exercise. However, there is evidence that exercise is a safe intervention to reduce the persistent pro-inflammatory condition found in the aging process (immunosenescence) and obesity. Thus, balance between M1 and M2 is essential for maintaining a healthy state, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness may be a key variable. Leptin is a hormone released mainly by WAT which, among the diversity of physiological functions, is able to modulate macrophage function. The response of macrophages to polarization stimuli for the M1 or M2 phenotype in the presence or absence of leptin will be evaluated in individuals with different visceral fat thicknesses, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and age, ascertaining the effective participation of the AMPK pathway. (AU)