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The effects of pesticides (2,4-D and Diuron), single and in mixture, on Daphnia magna and Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach at the local and landscape scales

Grant number: 20/16131-0
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Post-doctor
Effective date (Start): September 15, 2021
Effective date (End): February 14, 2022
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Ecology - Applied Ecology
Principal researcher:Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espindola
Grantee:Raquel Aparecida Moreira
Supervisor abroad: Julian Blasco Moreno
Home Institution: Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Carlos , SP, Brazil
Research place: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain  
Associated to the scholarship:17/24126-4 - EFFECTS OF THE PESTICIDES FIPRONIL AND 2,4-D, ISOLATELY AND IN MIXTURE, ON NATIVE SPECIES OF THE NEOTROPICAL AQUATIC BIOTA, BP.PD

Abstract

Despite advances in the field of Ecotoxicology, there is still a significant gap of information about the toxicity of many chemicals in the environment. Technological and conceptual advances, however, have enabled the use of new methods and techniques, allowing more detailed analyses on the subject, such as integrative approaches, which investigate the mechanisms of toxicity of pollutants in different organisms through non-forced and forced exposures. This progress has been important in the study of pesticides toxicity on non-target species since knowledge on their harmful effects is necessary for the preservation of the environment. In this context, the approach of susceptibility to stress from a landscape perspective, considering the chemical heterogeneity of the exposure scenario, allows to know how stressed might be the population when the landscape presents few escape areas that minimize the continuous exposure to contaminants. Thus, the present research aims to assess how the stress (measured as cortisol levels) and the escape capacity in Danio rerio varies, depending on the chemical heterogeneity due to the presence of the pesticides and the presence of clean/non-preventable areas. Furthermore, considering that not all organisms escape, we could use the forced scenario to see the toxicity of pesticides. Thus, the current research also aims to analyze the effects of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and diuron (3-(3,4-diclorofenil)-1,1-dimetilureia), single and in mixtures, using different functional/physiological endpoints (oxygen consumption, feeding rate, reproduction and swimming) in Daphnia magna, besides avoidance behavior. This study will contribute to understand the toxic effect of both pesticides and its mixture on the ecosystems and the processes involved in the exposure of organisms of different trophic levels, to such contaminants at realistic concentrations occurring around the world. It is also expected that this approach could become a useful, ecologically relevant and innovative tool for ecological risk assessment.

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