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Resilience of buildings to climate change in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Case study: thermal performance of residential buildings for seniors

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Author(s):
Carolina Abrahão Alves
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo (FAU/SBI)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Denise Helena Silva Duarte; Joana Carla Soares Gonçalves; Arlindo Tribess
Advisor: Denise Helena Silva Duarte
Abstract

The subject of this research is the residential buildings performance in the city of São Paulo, taking into account the climate changes predicted for the next decades and the greater vulnerability of the elderly related to the environmental conditions. The aim is the evaluation of thermal performance and comfort in residential buildings under the RCP 8.5 scenario from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report - IPCC AR5, as well as under the heat wave occurred in January and February 2014. This work is based on real case studies and computer simulations. The method is inductive, by field surveys, and deductive, though the comparison between measurements and computer simulation; finally, predictive studies of thermal performance and comfort are presented. For this purpose, six elderly dwellings, besides a control one, were surveyed and monitored, and computer simulations were carried out using EDLS/Bentley TAS (Thermal Analysis Software). For the computer simulations, simulated and measured climate data were employed. The simulated data were treated starting from data provided by the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences/IAG-USP representing the periods present (1975 to2005), near future (2015 to 2044), intermediate future (2045 to 2074 and far future (2076 to 2096). Measured data were recorded by the IAG-USP meteorological station, located in southern São Paulo, for three different periods: 2013, when the residences were monitored; 1972, selected as representative of the buildings\' construction period, and also 2014, to study the January and February heat wave effects. Results were analyzed comparing comfort conditions in the different climate scenarios and also among the case studies, following the adaptive comfort indices De Dear et al. (1997) / ASHRAE 55 (2013) and Humphreys et al. (2010), which were considered the two most appropriate ones, among the existing indexes, for the passive mode operation in the local climate. Analysis revealed a tendency of change in comfort conditions throughout the progression of future climate scenarios, showing an increase in heat sensation and a decrease in cold sensation, which were expressed in number of hours and degree-hours of discomfort. Furthermore, in the occurrence of heat waves, the unexpected and persistent increase in air temperature tends to make thermal discomfort even more pronounced. Among all the studied scenarios, and applying both comfort models, in average, discomfort by heat increased 271%, ranging from 83% to 694%, and discomfort by cold decreased 51%, ranging from 24% to 70%. The results show that the combination of both phenomena, climate change and heat wave, may lead to a potential effect of heat discomfort, making thermal conditions inhospitable for human comfort, besides implying a higher energy consumption for air conditioning. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/07524-2 - Building resilience for climate change in Sao Paulo metropolitan region case study: thermal performance of residential buildings for the elderly
Grantee:Carolina Abrahão Alves
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master