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Structure, magnetic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of ferrofluids: nanoparticles size effects

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Eduardo Sell Gonçalves
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Física (IF/SBI)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Antonio Martins Figueiredo Neto; Leonardo De Boni; Andre de Pinho Vieira
Advisor: Antonio Martins Figueiredo Neto

Magnetic nanofluids formed by electrically charged manganese ferrite particles were studied under the structural, magnetic and optical point of view. Structural characteristics were analyzed by small angle X-rays scattering (SAXS) technique, which allowed determining the nanoparticles\' size distribution. Thus, it was possible to determine the lognormal behavior of the size distribution, as well as the particles\' mean diameter of the studied solutions, Mn3, Mn4 and Mn6, as 2.8nm, 3.4nm and 6.2nm, respectively. Also, the magnetization of the different solutions was investigated as a function of the temperature under the ZFC/FC protocol, allowing the determination of the blocking temperature distribution, quantity that depends on the nanoparticles\' volume. Comparing the distributions obtained it was noted that the obtained by magnetic measurements was narrower than the one obtained by SAXS, which indicates dipolar interactions between nanoparticles. This hypothesis was supported by ac susceptibility measurements, which resulted in very short relaxation times, incompatible with single particles models, leading to the conclusion of the existence of a correlation length with N interaction particles in the correlation volume 3. Those particles groups do not correspond to physical clusters, since electron density changes were not observed in X-rays scattering curves, but to magnetic clusters that responds collectively to the external field. The simultaneous analysis of ac and dc magnetization results showed changes in the anisotropy of the particles, surface effects due to reduction of crystal size. The study of linear optical properties allowed the determination of the absorption spectrum as a function of the nanoparticles\' concentration in solution. Thus, the validity of the Beer-Lambert law was verified for the wavelength range 300nm < < 600nm was determined for direct and indirect transitions as EgapDir = 3.07 ± 0.15eV and EgapInd = 2.06 ± 0.11eV, respectively. Finally, nonlinear optical properties were studied by the z-scan technique in the femto-second time scale. Curves were obtained and, by means of theoretical equations adjustments to the data, it was possible to determine nonlinear parameters. However, additional studies have shown that such effects were not of electronic origin, but thermal, as thermal lens and thermodiffusion. Thus, the nonlinear coefficient of ferrofluids could not be determined accurately, only maximum values of these coefficients were obtained regardless of the size of the nanoparticles, as max = 3.9x10-2cm/GW the maximum value of the two photon absorption coefficient and |n2max| = 5.3x10-16cm2/W for the nonlinear refraction index. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/13384-1 - Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ferrofluids: nanoparticle's size effect
Grantee:Eduardo Sell Gonçalves
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master