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Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships of the species of the complex \'Cattleya coccinea\' (Orchidaceae)

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Author(s):
Jucelene Fernandes Rodrigues
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Elizabeth Ann Veasey; Cassio Van Den Berg; Giancarlo Conde Xavier Oliveira; Clarisse Palma da Silva; Maria Imaculada Zucchi
Advisor: Elizabeth Ann Veasey
Abstract

Species delimitation and reconstruction of the evolutionary history of species complexes may require great efforts since taxonomically problematic groups are often a result of recent speciation events or rapid speciation. The \'Cattleya coccinea\' complex, of the orchid family, consists of epiphytic and small rupicolous orchids with high ornamental value. Despite being described with clear diagnostic morphological characters that allow their identification, delimitation of the currently recognized species is problematic. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to review the species delimitation of the complex and the relationship between species, and to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure, combined with phylogeographic analyzes to test the occurrence of historical demographic events. To answer such questions, cpDNA and nrDNA sequence regions, 11 microsatellite loci, and Bayesian inference and coalescent model were used, combined with traditional statistics and methodology. The results support the monophyly for the clade for concatenated cpDNA regions. They also indicate four major reticulation events of C. coccinea species clade with other species of the genus Cattleya. Additionally, results support the recognition of seven different species for C. coccinea clade, composed of two main evolutionary lineages further north in the Southeast: C. brevipedunculata predominant in the Serra do Espinhaço and C. wittigiana from northern Serra do Mar. And five species distributed along the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira (C. coccinea, C. mantiqueirae, and three other species of the populations DMES; SJPSP and CSRS/JOSC/PMPR. The diversity analyzes showed moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and point out that the species C. coccinea and C. brevipedunculata have the highest levels of diversity compared to other species of the clade. The genetic structure of populations within species showed variation from low to high. Assigning individuals analysis from Bayesian inference showed the formation of eight genetically distinct groups. The dispersal rate analysis of pollen x seed gene flow showed that dispersal through pollen is approximately eight times more efficient than the dispersal through seeds only for C. coccinea. Furthermore, the haplotype network indicated that the species rarely share haplotypes and that C.coccinea and C. brevipedunculata present greater diversity with expansion events. The divergence time estimation analysis showed that C. brevipedunculata and C. wittigiana probably originated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. The other clade species have diversified in the Pleistocene. Population expansion events were observed for all species in the Pleistocene ice ages. Because they are endangered species, this study recommends the \"in situ\" conservation as well as \"ex situ\" conservation for all species of clade, with special attention for two species of Espírito Santo: C. wittigiana and the species of DMES locality, in addition to the species of SJPSP location in São Paulo. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/18751-7 - Phylogeography, population genetics and species delimitation on the Cattleya coccinea complex (Orchidaceae)
Grantee:Jucelene Fernandes Rodrigues
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate