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Functional interaction between Cholinergic and Adrenergic systems in the maintenance of muscle mass and motor endplate

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Author(s):
Danilo Lustrino Borges
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Luiz Carlos Carvalho Navegantes; Amanda Martins Baviera; Eduardo Ferriolli; Maria Teresa Riggio de Lima Landman; Guilherme de Araujo Lucas
Advisor: Luiz Carlos Carvalho Navegantes
Abstract

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the acute stimulation of 2-adrenergic receptor (2-AR) attenuates the muscle loss induced by motor denervation (DEN) through a cAMP/PKA dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the chronic activation of these receptors are poorly understood. Furthermore, the activation of this signaling pathway is also involved in controlling the stability of nicotinic receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), suggesting that the density of AChR may be under neurohumoral control. Thus, we postulated that besides the protective effects on muscle mass the activation of 2-AR receptors could mediate the stabilization of AChR in the motor plate. To test this hypothesis, mice were submitted to DEN through of the sciatic nerve section, a classical protocol of induction muscle atrophy and destabilization of AChR, and were treated with saline or clenbuterol (CB), a selective 2-agonist for 14 days. DEN decreased the muscle mass and increased the protein content and mRNA expression of genes related to the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (atrogin-1 and MuRF1) and autophagic/lysosomal system (cathepsin L and LC3). DEN also promoted an increase in the turnover of AChR, number of endocytic vesicles and the expression of mRNA for the 1 subunit of AChR. Interestingly, chronic DEN induced down-regulation of atrophy related-genes, and increased the activity of cAMP/PKA pathway independently of CB treatment. In an attempt to elucidate the extracellular signals that produced this adaptive response, it was demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons travels along the sciatic nerve and its ablation by DEN reduces muscle norepinephrine content. Based on these results, it was postulated the existence of a muscle adrenergic hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines induced by chronic DEN. CB treatment for 3 days completely abolished the higher expression of atrogenes and this effect was associated with increased Camp content and PKA phosphorylated substrates. Furthermore, CB decreased the DEN-induced hyperexpression of cathepsin L and LC3 mRNA at 7 days. Although CB has not altered the half-life of AChR in innervated and denervated muscles, it produced a total blockage of the increased number of endocytic vesicles containing the AChR in denervated muscles. Consistently, CB increased the incorporation of new AChR and this effect was associated with an increased expression of the 1-subunit AChR mRNA in denervated muscles. This action of CB on AChR turnover appears to be direct, since catecholaminergic neurons are present in the sciatic nerve stimulating 2-AR and cAMP production specifically in the NMJ. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation produced by carbachol (10-4M) decreased the rate of protein synthesis and increased the proteolytic activity of Ca2+-dependent system in rat soleus muscle through activation of nicotinic receptors. This catabolic effect of carbachol was completely blocked by the addition of CB (10-4M) to the incubation medium. These data suggest that chronic stimulation of 2-AR in skeletal muscle induces an anti-catabolic effect by suppressing proteasomal and lysosomal proteolytic systems, probably through the cAMP/PKA signaling. The inhibition of these systems seems to be related to the increased AChR incorporation into NMJ induced by CB treatment. Moreover, the association between noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons in the sciatic nerve, both of which innervate the motor endplates, and the co-localization of AChR and 2-ARat the synapse suggest the existence of a functional interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic systems in the maintenance of muscle mass and motor endplate. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/05697-7 - Functional interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic systems in the maintenance of muscle mass and motor endplate
Grantee:Danilo Lustrino Borges
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)