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Long-term economic evaluation of Pharmaceutical Care for patients with systemic arterial hypertension

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Author(s):
Maurilio de Souza Cazarim
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira; Altacilio Aparecido Nunes
Advisor: Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Abstract

Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is a risk factor for 9.4 million deaths worldwide. In Brazil, SAH assigns an annual cost of approximately R$969,231,436,00 the Public Health System (PHS). Some studies have shown a great effectiveness of pharmaceutical care (PC) to improve clinical parameters of patients with SAH. In this context, this study aimed to develop an economic tool considering costs and outcomes to help health managers to deploy the PC in the PHS and reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by hypertension. For this, a pharmacoeconomic modeling study of cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit and cost-utility was conducted. Into two basic units of PHS, in Ribeirão Preto, 104 patients were followed for an PC program during 2009. Clinical, healthcare and economic data were collected for the years 2006 to 2012. The data were divided into periods, 2006-2008 pre PC, 2009 PC and 2010-2012 post-PC. The economic analysis was carried out in five stages: Direct cost analysis; indirect cost analysis with Markov modeling; Cost-benefit analysis to obtain the net present value (NPV); Sensitivity analysis of the costs and analysis of epidemiological impact. The pressure control of patients was 54.4%, 98.2% and 93% in the pre PC, PC and post-PC, respectively. In direct cost analysis the difference between the total cost was -R$ 307.23 and R$ 4,053.32; the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio was R$ 1,124.24 and R$ 100.98 for the periods PC and post-PC, respectively. There were 46 complications of hypertension and 17 deaths; and 15 complications and 5 deaths over ten years for health care without the PC and with PC, respectively. The cost per patient was R$ 17.09 / quality-adjusted life years and R$ 28.98 per year of life saved after discharge from the PC. The NPV obtained with the investment in this pharmaceutical practice was R$ 3,791,111.13 and the Benefit-cost Ratio (BCR) was 30.03 (26.74 - 34.28), BCR > 1 and investment return rate was 303%. It was concluded that the PC was able to improve the blood pressure control and total cholesterol level reducing the cardiovascular risk. That meant reduction spending on health and a positive epidemiological impact. This analysis was enough to develop a pharmacoeconomic tool that can assist managers in making decisions regarding the implementation of PC to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by SAH. (AU)