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Performance of wastewater treatment plants: an analysis of small and medium wastewater treatment pond systems integrated with evaluation of water bodies quality in UGRHI 12 - Baixo Pardo/Grande

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Author(s):
Letícia Franco Leonel
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Carlos.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Lyda Patricia Sabogal Paz; Erich Kellner; Sílvia Maria Alves Corrêa Oliveira
Advisor: Lyda Patricia Sabogal Paz
Abstract

Despite advances in wastewater collection and treatment indicators in São Paulo state, there are still uncertainties about the effectiveness of existing treatment systems, since they is little information on the performance of WTPs operating in the country. Throughout the acquisition and analysis of system performance data, it is possible to evaluate the compliance with environmental legislation and improve operating conditions, effectively reducing the impact of the discharge on water resources. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate statistically the performance of stabilization ponds - wastewater treatment technology most widely used in São Paulo state - located in UGRHI 12 - Baixo Pardo/Grande, all of them with design flow rates below 300 L/s, using self-monitoring data given by the service providers. The evaluation comprised a period of 10 years (2005-2014), including from the projects of the ponds to the characterization of WTPs influent and effluent data, also incorporating the impact of treated wastewater release in receiving bodies and the quality of water bodies in watershed scale, using the data from CETESB\'s monitoring network in UGRHI 12. The performance of the WTPs was evaluated for BOD, COD, total coliforms, E. coli, suspended solids, ammonia and total phosphorus, considering the typical ranges mentioned in the literature and compliance with discharge and water quality standards. The provided data were quite heterogeneous, most of them presenting variable sampling periodicities and interruptions in monitoring, sometimes hindering a more consistent analysis. The influent\'s concentrations of organic matter were higher than the usual values expressed in the literature, which was most likely caused by low water consumption combined with the type of sampling practiced (single sampling). In general, the ponds\' performance, considering the average BOD and COD removal efficiencies, was as expected, however, such values weren\'t enough to ensure high percentage of compliance with São Paulo\'s environmental legislation, since the percentages were below 80% in most WTPs. Regarding the concentrations in treated wastewater, the performance was less than expected, which resulted in the discharge of effluents with high concentrations of organic matter, even though they were in compliance with discharge standards by the removal efficiency criterion. The evaluation of the receiving stream showed that, even consisting of relatively low flow rates discharges, such releases were able to impact the water bodies, especially those with low dilution ratio. Finally, in watershed scale, it was found that, in UGRHI 12 water bodies, there are still high percentages of non-conformity for total phosphorus and E. coli, contributing to this scenario both point and non-point sources of pollution. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/08192-6 - Removal and inactivation of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in drinking water with high turbidity, using flotation, employing aluminum hydroxychloride and ozone
Grantee:Letícia Franco Leonel
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master