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Advanced glycated albumin and insulin resistance in rats: focus on periepididimal adipose tissue and N-acetylcysteine actions

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Author(s):
Karolline Santana da Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Marisa Passarelli; Sérgio Atala Dib; Ubiratan Fabres Machado; Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento; Sandra Mara Ferreira Villares
Advisor: Marisa Passarelli
Abstract

[Thesis]. São Paulo: \"Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, 2016\". Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute to oxidative and inflammatory stress, which constitute the cellular basis for long-term complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Albumin is the major serum protein modified by AGE and adversely affects macrophage lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, pancreatic islet function and muscle insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of chronic administration of AGE-albumin, associated or not with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment, in peripheral insulin sensitivity, macrophage infiltration and polarization and transcriptome of periepididimal adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophage differentiation in healthy rats. AGE-albumin was prepared by incubating rat albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde for 4 days, 37 °C, under shaker, in the dark. Control albumin (C) was incubated with PBS alone. Four-weeks old male Wistar rats (n = 7-8/group) were randomized into four groups receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of C or AGE albumin (20 mg/kg/day) alone or together with NAC (600mg/L drinking water) (C + NAC albumin and AGE + NAC albumin), for 90 consecutive days. Biochemical parameters were determined by enzymatic techniques, lipid peroxidation by the measurement of urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), gene expression by RT-qPCR and protein content by immunohistochemistry. Total AGE was determined by ELISA and carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (PYR) by liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Periepididimal adipose tissue was analyzed by stereology. Total AGE concentration, CML and PYR were, respectively, 9.2, 7000 and 235 times higher in AGE albumin as compared to C. Food consumption, body weight, systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and urinary protein excretion (24 h) were similar among groups. NAC reduced urinary TBARS in AGE + NAC group as compared to AGE (1.4 x) and C + NAC (1.6 x), respectively. AGE albumin reduced 1.4 times the insulin sensitivity as compared to C albumin; this was prevented by NAC. Adipose tissue relative weight, adipocyte area fraction and volume were similar among groups. A higher (1.3 x) macrophage infiltrate (F4/80 positive cells) was observed in AGE albumin treated animals in comparison to those treated with C albumin and this was prevented by NAC. CD11b and CD206 were unchanged as well as mRNA de Ager (RAGE), Ddost (AGE-R1), Cd36, Nfkb1, Il6, Il10, Tnf, Nos2 and Il12. Itgam (CD11b - M1) and Mrc (CD206 - M2) were reduced in AGE + NAC group in comparison to C + NAC (2 and 1.9 x, respectively) and AGE (1.8 and 1.5 x, respectively). Increased Slc2a4 (GLUT-4) and Ppara mRNA were observed in AGE + NAC group in comparison to C + NAC (Slc2a4: 1.6 x; Ppara: 2.2 x) and to AGE (Slc2a4: 2.3 x; Ppara: 3.3 x). AGE albumin increased the expression of Col12a1 in 3.1 times as compared to C albumin. In peritoneal macrophages there was an increase in Il6 (2.6 x) and Ddost (1.4 x) in AGE group as compared to C. Ddost was also 1.2 times increased in AGE + NAC as compared to C+NAC. NAC increased Arg1 (arginase 1) in C + NAC (2.5 x) and AGE + NAC (2.6 x) as compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, AGE albumin favors macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue promoting over time tissue sensitization to AGE that may contribute to worsening insulin resistance in this animal model. NAC antagonizes the effects of AGE albumin and by itself has beneficial effects in macrophage differentiation in adipose tissue and peritoneal cavity, inflammatory response, lipid peroxidation and insulin sensitivity. NAC may be a useful tool in the prevention of AGE actions on the development of insulin resistance and long-term complications of DM (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/18724-2 - Advanced glycated albumin and insulin resistance in rats: focus on periepididimal adipose tissue and N-acetylcysteine actions
Grantee:Karolline Santana da Silva
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate