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Analysis of hnRNPK protein in cell lines NB4 and NB4-R2 of acute promyelocytic leukemia with emphasis in pathogenesis and cell differentiation by all-trans retinoic acid

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Author(s):
Karina Stringhetta Padovani
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Andréia Machado Leopoldino; Kelen Cristina Ribeiro Malmegrim de Farias; Sara Teresinha Ollala Saad; Fabíola Traina
Advisor: Andréia Machado Leopoldino
Abstract

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and endogenous inhibitor of phosphatase 2A (SET) are overexpressed and proposed as prognostic markers in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. The study aim was to characterize the hnRNP K and SET proteins involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia leukemia (APL) leukemogenesis as well as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced cell differentiation. Initial qRT-PCR results demonstrate that HNRNPK and SET mRNA levels are increased in patients diagnosed with APL compare to samples from healthy donors and decrease after induction and during maintenance of treatment. The results were validated by Western blot, suggesting hnRNP K and SET as diagnostic and response to treatment markers. The knockdown of hnRNP K and SET was performed on sensitive, NB4, and ATRA-resistant, NB4-R2, LPA cells using interfering RNA. Both proteins were also tested as a therapeutic target with a use of hnRNP K (U0126) and SET inhibitors (OP449 and FTY720). The decrease of hnRNP K in cells led to increased granulocyte cell differentiation in both cells, especially in the presence of ATRA, and thus was able to reverse the NB4-R2 cells resistance to ATRA phenotype. The hnRNP K knockdown, as well as the treatment with U0126, had a loss of cell viability by induction of apoptosis accompanied by cleavage of the SET protein. The SET knockdown in APL cells confirmed that an induction of apoptosis in cells with hnRNP K knockdown occurred by cleavage and not by the SET protein decrease in the cells. Furthermore, it has also shown that SET impairs the ATRA\'s performance in the cellular differentiation process. The in vivo model using NB4-R2 transplant in nude mice confirmed that arsenic trioxide (ATO) combined with U0126 has a greater potential against tumor progression compared to the treatment isolated with ATO. FTY720 and OP449 have significant anti-leukemic effect reducing cell viability. When in combination, FTY720 and OP449, they had a significant synergistic effect on NB4-R2 (CDI <0.7). We conclude that overexpression of hnRNP K and SET contributes to block cell differentiation in promyelocytes and impair the performance of ATRA in the treatment of APL and therefore hnRNPK in association with a SET protein represent a potential therapeutic target for anti-leukemic therapy of APL, mainly for patients resistant to ATRA (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/00374-8 - Analysis of hnRNPK protein in cell lines NB4 and NB4-R2 of acute myeloid leukemia with emphasis in pathogenesis and cell differentiation by all-trans retinoic acid
Grantee:Karina Stringhetta Padovani
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)