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Influence of a Physical Therapy intervention for foot and ankle on gait biomechanics of patients with diabetic polineuropathiy: a randomized controlled trial

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Author(s):
Cristina Dallemole Sartor
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Isabel de Camargo Neves Sacco; José Angelo Barela; Silvia Maria Amado João; Anamaria Jones Martinez
Advisor: Isabel de Camargo Neves Sacco
Abstract

This study shows how the foot rollover process during gait of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy can be improved with exercises for foot and ankle, aiming at the recovery of the muscles and joints affected by the disease. A clinical trial randomized, parallel, one arm of crossover, with blind assessment was conducted. Fifty-five patients with diabetic polineuropathy were randomly allocated to the control group (n = 29) and intervention group (n = 26). The intervention was applied for 12 weeks, twice a week, for 40 to 60 minutes per session. The primary variables were defined as those that describe the foot rollover: plantar pressure in 6 plantar areas of interest. The secondary variables were kinetic and kinematics of the ankle in the sagittal plane were calculated, and the clinical measures of foot and ankle function (manual muscle function testing, functional testing), signs and symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy, physical examination of the feet and balance and confidence test in gait activities. The time effects (baseline and 12 weeks), group effects (control and intervention groups) and interaction effects were calculated using casewise two factos ANOVAs, and for intragroup comparisons of intervention group (baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks) it was used ANOVAs for repeated measures. The nonparametric variables were compared between groups using Mann-Whitney tests and between periods of assessment using Wilcoxon test. We adopted an ? of 5% for statistical differences and the Cohen\'s d coefficient for description of the effect size. After 12 weeks ofexercises, there were positive changes in the foot rollover process. There was a softening of heel contact in initial contact, reflected by the increase in time to peak pressure and the pressure time integral. The midfoot increased its participation observed by the decrease in speed of displacement of the center of pressure and increased pressure time integral. The lateral forefoot contact was earlier relative to the medial forefoot, that occurred at the same time before intervention, observed by the early time to peak pressure of lateral forefoot after the intervention. The participation of the hallux and toes also increased (increase of pressure time integral and peak pressure), in a pathology that is marked by decreased contact of the hallux and development of claw toes, which reduces contact of the toes with the ground. CG showed some worsening in relation to muscle function and kinematic and kinetic parameters of the ankle, while the IG showed improvement in the function of many muscles groups, functional tests and peak extensor moment during the forefoot contact. The intervention protocol was constructed to allow the patient to incorporate exercise into their daily routine, but adherence to treatment should be studied and motivational strategies need to be applied, since most of the variables returned to baseline after the follow up period (12 weeks after the intervention). Preventive actions are critical to reducing the devastating complications of diabetic neuropathy (AU)