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The activation of AIM2 receptor in the intestinal mucosal protects against experimental type 1 diabetes

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Author(s):
Jefferson Antonio Leite
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Daniela Carlos Sartori; Ana Maria Caetano de Faria; Dario Simões Zamboni
Advisor: Daniela Carlos Sartori
Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of ? cells present in the pancreatic islets by autoreactive T lymphocytes, especially Th1 and Th17, leading to a state of hyperglycemia. There are many studies that address the role of adaptive immune response, so only some studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the innate immune response in the context of T1D. In this regard, we observed that pre-diabetic WT mice have a significant increase in the gene and protein expression of the AIM2 receptor and in molecules related to its activation and signaling pathways (Caspase-1, IL- 1? and IL-18) in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) and in the ileum. Subsequently, it was verified that AIM2 receptor deficient mice became more susceptible to T1D, as proved by blood glucose levels and lower insulin production compared to wild-type mice (WT) after administration of streptozotocin (STZ). This susceptibility was related to a process of dysbiosis and increased translocation of bacteria from gut microbiota to PLNs in AIM2-/- mice. Interestingly, the AIM2 inflammasome was activated in the presence of fecal DNA from diabetic mice, which has a gut microbiota in dysbiosis, since resulted in significant production of IL-1?. It was found that activation of the AIM2 receptor in the intestinal mucosa regulated the gene and protein expression of tightjunction proteins, antimicrobial peptides and mucins in order to minimizing a bacterial translocation of the microbiota to the PLNs. In addition, it was seen that activation of the AIM2 receptor contributes to induction of intestinal Th17 cells, to neutrophil migration in the intestine, as well as for expression of IL-23, IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines in the ileum. Finally, we show that the AIM2 receptor negatively modulated the activation of dendritic cells expressing TLR4 and TLR9, which correlated with the increase of pathogenic Tc1 cells in the PLNs. In general, the results demonstrate that activation of the AIM2 receptor in the intestinal mucosa plays an important role in controlling the composition of gut microbiota homeostasis, maintaining the intestinal barrier function, and consequently reducing the bacterial translocation to the PLNs, conferring a protective effect to the immunopathogeny against to DM1. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/25116-0 - Evaluation of the expression profile and function of AIM2 inflammasome in intestinal mucosa during diabetes type 1 experimental
Grantee:Jefferson Antonio Leite
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master