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Evaluation of the inflammasome activation by toxins isolated from bothropic venoms and modulation of the immune response

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Author(s):
Priscila de Andrade Ranéia e Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas (ICB/SDI)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eliana Faquim de Lima Mauro; José Carlos Farias Alves Filho; Alessandra Pontillo; Nancy Starobinas; Sandra Coccuzzo Sampaio Vessoni
Advisor: Eliana Faquim de Lima Mauro
Abstract

Tissue damage is one of the local effects described in bothropic envenomations. Isolated toxins, such as jararhagin (JAR) and bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), obtained from B. jararaca and B. jararacussu venoms, respectively, induce intense inflammatory response and tissue injury, however mediated by distinct mechanisms. As described, resolution of tissue injury involves the interaction between mechanisms of tissue repair and the immune system. In this context, the inflammatory response is initiated by detecting of signs of acute tissue damage due to disorders of homeostasis resulting from distinct agents (DAMPs) and / or recognition of pathogens associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Once induced, the inflammatory response is involved both in the injury process for the elimination of the pathogenic agent, as well as in the tissue repair. Several receptors are involved in the recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs as the transmembrane receptors such as the Toll-like, and the cytosolic ones that comprise protein complexes - inflammasomes. These cytosolic multiprotein complexes may participate in the induction of the innate immune response by activation of caspase-1 with consequent release of IL-1&#946, which may result in cell death. Thus, we aimed to study the role of inflammasome on the inflammatory response in muscular tissue of JAR and BthTX-I injection, the ability of BthTX-I and JAR to induce the activation of inflammasome in macrophages and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. The analyses of the neutrophils and macrophages migration in gastrocnemius muscle of C57BL/6 or Caspase 1/11 (Caspase 1/11-/-) or NLRP3 (NLRP3-/-) deficient mice injected with JAR e BthTX-I allow us to verify that NLRP3 inflammasome participates in these cells migration for the local of the toxins injection. The detection of IL-1&#946 on supernatants from macrophage cultures incubated with JAR or BthTX-I (6 e 24h) showed that only BthTX-I was able to induce this cytokine secretion by a mechanism dependent of caspase 1/11, ASC and NLRP3 and independent of IPAF. The incubation of human macrophages with the toxins demonstrated that both toxins induced IL-1&#946 secretion, however this production was significantly higher in response to BthTX-I. On murine macrophage cultures it was verified the correlation between the IL-1&#946 secretion and the cell death in the incorporation of ethidium bromide assay of cultures incubated with BthTX-I during 24h and not with JAR. Since that both toxins injected in the muscle induced intense inflammation, it was analyzed the effect of both toxins on the viability and the secretions of IL-6 and MCP-1 by C2C12 myotubes. The results showed that only BthTX-I induces a myotoxic effect on this cell line. Furthermore, it was verified that BthTX-I induces high secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 when compared with those induced by JAR. Considering that BthTX-I induces high levels of MCP-1, in in vivo experiment using C57BL/6 and CCR2 deficient (CCR2-/-) mice it was observed that the interaction of MCP-1 and CCR2 is essential for the macrophage recruitment for the toxin injection. High release of ATP was detected in C2C12 myotube cultures incubated with BthTX-I but not with JAR. In another experiments it was studied the ability of the supernatants of C2C12 myotubes incubated with BthTX-I to induce the IL-1&#946 secretion by peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results showed the IL-1&#946 secretion in the macrophage cultures as well as the cytokne secretion in macrophages incubated with BthTX-I and ATP independent of the priming with LPS. The hydrolysis of the ATP on the supernatants of C2C12 incubated with the BthTX-I abolished the IL-1&#946 production by macrophages in vitro. In addition, it was not observed IL-1&#946 production by macrophages primed with LPS and incubated with BthTX-I in the presence of high concentration of KCl suggesting a relevant role of K&#43 efflux for this cytokine secretion in response to BthTX-I. Taken together, the results show new findings about the inflammatory effect of JAR and BthTX-I, concerning about the action of these toxins on macrophages, inflammasome activation and muscle cell. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/09880-6 - Study activation of inflammasome by toxins isolated from Bothrops venom and modulation of immune response
Grantee:Priscila Andrade Ranéia e Silva
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate