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Parasitological studies in stray dogs and wild generalist carnivores in Iguaçu National Park, Foz do Iguaçu

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Author(s):
Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Jaboticabal. 2016-05-04.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias. Jaboticabal
Defense date:
Advisor: Estevam Guilherme Lux Hoppe
Abstract

Carnivores have vital importance to the integrity and stability of their ecosystems, because they act controlling the population of species in lower levels of the trophic chain. However, wild populations are regulated by parasites and this relationship may influence all the natural community. The coatis (Nasua nasua) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), are two common generalist and opportunistic carnivore, widely distributed in the Iguassu National Park. As generalist species, they can benefit from anthropic influence, making them closer to human populations and, therefore, vulnerable to domestic animals pathogens. This way, this research aims to describe parasitic helminths of Crab-eating foxes and Coatis and free-roaming dogs, around and inside Iguassu Park, evaluate changes in host sanitary status and the ecological context. For this, 75 coatis was captured and 50 dogs of the around, to collection of biological samples. Hematological, biochemistry and fecal tests were done. The presence of blood microfilariae was done by Knott test, serological and histochemistry tests. In addition, 13 coatis and seven crab-eating foxes was necropsied to obtain adult helminths and taxonomic identification. We identified seven species of parasite filarids in coatis of the PARNA Iguaçu, Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Brugia sp., Mansonella sp., and two species with new histochemical patterns, which didn’t allow her identification. Besides, was identified 14 species of helminths in coatis, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Athesmia heterolecithodes, Atriotaenia sandgroundi, Filaroides milksi, Molineus nasuae, M. barbaris, M. felineus, Neoncicola potosi, Physaloptera semilanceolata, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara alienata and Uncinaria bidens, with description of two new species of nematodes, Baruscapillaria krugsekicola n. sp. and Molineus nascimentoi n. sp. for this host. For graxains nine species of helminths were identified, Ancylostoma braziliensis, A. buckleyi, A. caninum, Angiostrongylus vasorum, A. heterolecithodes, Dipylidium caninum, Metastrongyloidea, Pterigodermatites (multipectines) pluripectinata and Uncinaria carinii. Regarding the effect of gastrointestinal parasitism on the coatis, the deleterious effects are mostly reflected on the hematological and biochemical parameters of the hosts, with possible impact on the fitness and survival of these individuals. The subadult animals were the most affected by parasitism within the studied community. This study describes the helminthfauna of coatis and crab-eating foxes in the PARNA Iguaçu, and showed that some of the diagnosed helminths are resultant of spillover from domestic dogs of the surrounding farms. Also, some of the helminths have important zoonotic potential, stating the necessity for an active surveillance so that there is underreporting of these parasitic infections in this region. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/08180-0 - Parasitological studies in stray dogs and wild generalist carnivores in Iguazu National Park, Foz do Iguaçú
Grantee:Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master