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Study of hydromorphic properties of soils and deposits in lower slope sectors and valley bottoms in the Cotia Drainage Basin/Ibiúna Plateau

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Author(s):
Helga Grigorowitschs
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (FFLCH/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Cleide Rodrigues; Sheila Aparecida Correia Furquim; Archimedes Perez Filho
Advisor: Cleide Rodrigues
Abstract

In this research we studied morphologies and relief positions with soils and deposits with moisture regimes characterized by temporary or permanent water saturation, with the following objectives: (i) characterization of soils and deposits located in lower slope sectors and valley bottoms, with an emphasis on their hydromorphic properties; (ii) identification of degrees of hydromorphy in the soils and deposits of these sectors and morphologies, and representation of their spatial variability; (iii) development of propositions about the regime of water saturation in the studied areas and its relationship with the degrees of hydromorphy; (iv) development of propositions about the hydrodynamics of floods in the studied floodplain. Regarding the methodological aspect, the research was conducted according to the principles of the geosystemic approach, presenting an integrated analysis which considered the inter-relations among the studied variables. For this study, we selected two cross profiles in the Cotia Drainage Basin, comprising lower slope sectors and valley bottoms, including a floodplain. Along these cross profiles, the following surveys were conducted: (i) topographic survey and construction of cross section graphics; (ii) description of the morphological attributes of soils and deposits, including detailed description of their hydromorphic properties; (iii) monitoring the water levels of the water table and perched water tables in the sites of description. The detailed characterization and analysis of the hydromorphic properties revealed gradations of intensity in them, and, based primarily on this, we developed a proposal for classification the soils and deposits of the study area according to degrees of hydromorphy. We built two-dimensional graphical representations which illustrated vertical and lateral successions of pedogenetic horizons or layers with different degrees of hydromorphy. Thus, general trends were identified in respect to the spatial distribution of the degrees of hydromorphy and in respect to its relationship with the regime of water saturation. One of the patterns identified consisted in the increase of the degree of hydromorphy in the soil profiles with increasing depth, associated with a longer duration of water saturation conditions in the deeper horizons. It were also observed significant differences in the intensity of the hydromorphic properties of the slopes, when compared to the valley bottom areas, including the floodplain. In this regard, lower degrees of hydromorphy were identified in the A and B horizons in the slope sectors, and higher degrees in the A and B horizons in the valley bottom areas. Such differences in the degree of hydromorphy were ascribed to distinct regimes of water saturation, considering that, in general, the horizons and layers with higher degrees of hydromorphy are subject to water saturation conditions of longer duration, when compared to those classified according to lower degrees of hydromorphy, in which the water saturation events have shorter duration and/or have lower frequency. Concerning the propositions about the hydrodynamics of floods in the studied floodplain, we identified morphologies that preferentially receive the overflowing river flows and have higher deposition rates, and sectors with lower deposition rates, where flooding is less frequent and there is a predominance of fine sediments deposition. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/03909-4 - Study of morphological, pedological and sedimentological characteristics in valley bottoms and footslopes in a drainage basin situated in the Ibiúna Plateau
Grantee:Helga Grigorowitschs
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master