Advanced search
Start date

Endoplasmic reticulum stress induction as a melanoma cell chemosensitization strategy

Full text
Renata de Freitas Saito
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Roger Chammas; Maristela Martins de Camargo; Beatriz Amaral de Castilho; Mirian Nacagami Sotto
Advisor: Roger Chammas; Andreia Hanada Otake

Melanoma is among the most aggressive malignancies with increasing worldwide incidence and there is no effective treatment for the metastatic disease. The absence of an effective therapy may be due to adaptation and selection of melanoma cells to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We showed that GADD153, one of the components of the ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, was mostly excluded from the nucleus of primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to nevus cells. These data suggest that the unexpected GADD153 cellular localization could be involved in melanoma cell adaption to ER stress, since GADD153 accumulates in the nucleus during ER stress. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling induced in response to ER stress, is a dual process that induces a protective response to restore ER homeostasis or cell death if ER stress is severe or persistent. We investigated if induction of ER stress was a potential strategy to chemosensitize melanoma cells to a second insult by surpassing the adaptive levels to ER stress. We first treated human melanoma cells (SbCl2, SK-MEL-28, Mel85, SK-MEL-29 and SK-MEL-147) with tunicamycin (Tuni), an ER stress inducer, before cisplatin (CDDP) treatment. CDDP is a low cost chemotherapeutic drug currently used in Brazil as a second line for melanoma treatment, especially in youngsters. All cell lines, except SK-MEL-29, demonstrated an >50% increase in the percentage of hypodiploid cells with Tuni>CDDP treatment when compared to CDDP only. The same results were obtained with temozolomide (TMZ), equivalent drug to the active form of dacarbazine, the first line of cytotoxic treatment of melanomas. UPR markers, GRP78 and nuclear translocation of GADD153 were induced by Tuni. Differences between SK-MEL-29 and SK-MEL-147 as cell surface GRP78 and ?1-6 oligossacharides can be related with the differential ER stress sensitization observed in these cells. One of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by ER stress is autophagy. Accordingly, we observed an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and accumulation of LC3II in response to Tuni>CDDP treatment. Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine increased Tuni>CDDP induced-cell death, suggesting that autophagy plays a protective role in this response. Oxidative stress can be involved in this scenario since we demonstrated an accumulation of reactive oxygen species in response to Tuni>CDDP. Tunicamycin was cytotoxic in vivo and we investigated alternatives to this antibiotic as swainsonine, atorvastatin, metformin and [Cu2(apyhist)2(dpam)](ClO4)4 but we did not observed ER stress induction. These results indicate that tumor cells could be preconditioned to cell death if exposed to a first ER stressor, such as Tuni, which would compromise an effective adaptive response to a cell death inducer, as CDDP and TMZ. This combined approach may be a promising strategy for melanoma therapy but further studies are necessary to find noncytotoxic alternatives to tunicamycin (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/08284-0 - Melanoma chemosensitization by er stress induction and study of a potential stress inductor peptide
Grantee:Renata de Freitas Saito
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate