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Phylogenetic analysis of corbiculate bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae): an analysis of total evidence

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Zioneth Judith Garcia Galeano
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Fernando Barbosa Noll; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Gisele Garcia Azevedo; Carlos Roberto Ferreira Brandao; Marcel Gustavo Hermes
Advisor: Fernando Barbosa Noll

This work evaluated the relationship between corbiculate Apidae using the total evidence available: traditional morphometric data, geometric morphometric data, morphological data, behavioral data and molecular data. These characters historically were incongruent. Methodological problems of each source of character were investigated and corrected in the phylogenetic analysis of the total evidence. The methodological problems were searched for each source of characters. All data are analyzed with parsimony methods. Twenty- four species of Apini and four outgroup species were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of eleven traditional body measurements suggested significant interference with body size of the species in the results, to correct this size effect morphometric data can be used as reliable phylogenetic characters. The character obtained from geometric morphometric was highly convergent in the phylogenetic analysis, despite the apparent phylogenetic constraint observed on relationship between the wing shape and body size of the species. Analyses of molecular data suggested the interference of the choice of outgroup in the results, different phylogenetic hypotheses emerged when include two species more distant of Apini in the outgroup. With the most distant outgroup, the support of the clades showed constant and higher for most comprehensive clades. However, the molecular data remained incongruent with traditional morphological and behavioral, morphometric characters analyzed. In contrast, morphological and behavioral data were not affected by the choice of outgroup, Euglossina remained as a paraphyletic group according to these characters. Finally, the phylogenetic hypothesis proposed for the corbiculate Apidae supports the monophyly of the tribe Apini, Euglossina Apina, Bombina and Meliponina. The hypothesis (Euglossina + (Bombina + (Apina + Meliponina))) is revalidated. Consequently, a single origin of eussocialidade within Apini is sustained. (AU)