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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

The azo dye Disperse Red 13 and its oxidation and reduction products showed mutagenic potential

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Drumond Chequer, Farah Maria [1, 2, 3] ; Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto [4] ; de Felicio, Rafael [5] ; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice [4] ; Debonsi, Hosana Maria [5] ; Lopes, Norberto Peporine [5] ; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma [1]
Total Authors: 7
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Ciencias Farmaceut Ribeirao Preto, Dept Anal Clin Toxicol & Bromatol, BR-14040903 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Fac Farm, Dept Anal Clin & Toxicol, BR-31270901 Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil
[3] Univ Itauna, Fac Farm, UIT, BR-35680142 Itauna, MG - Brazil
[4] Univ Estadual Paulista, Dept Quim Analit, UNESP, Inst Quim Araraquara, BR-14801970 Araraquara, SP - Brazil
[5] Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Ciencias Farmaceut Ribeirao Preto, Dept Fis & Quim, NPPNS USP, BR-14040903 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO; v. 29, n. 7, p. 1906-1915, OCT 2015.
Web of Science Citations: 19

Common water pollutants, azo dyes and their degradation products have frequently shown toxicity, including carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, and can induce serious damage in aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the azo dye Disperse Red 13 (DR13) was first evaluated using the Micronucleus Assay in human lymphocytes. Subsequently, in order to mimic hepatic biotransformation, controlled potential electrolysis was carried out with a DR13 solution using a Potentiostat/Galvanostat. In addition, a DR13 solution was oxidized using S9 (homogenate of rat liver cells). DR13 oxidation and the reduction products were identified using HPLC-DAD and GC/MS, and their mutagenic potential investigated by way of a Salmonella/microsome assay using TA98 and YG1041 strains, with no S9. The original azo dye DR13 induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes, and the respective oxidation and reduction products also showed mutagenic activity, as detected by the SaImonella/microsome assay. Furthermore sulfate 2-{[}(4-aminophenyl)ethylamino]-ethanol monohydrate, 2-chloro-4-nitro-benzamine, 4-nitro-benzamine and 2-(ethylphenylamine)-ethanol were identified as products of the DR13 reduction/oxidation reactions. Thus it was concluded that the contamination of water effluents with DR13 is a health risk not only due to the dye itself, but also due to the possibility of drinking contaminated water, considering the harmful compounds that can be produced after hepatic biotransformation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/17178-9 - Marine natural products: isolation and identification of unknown metabolites from endophytic fungi and cyanobacteria through chemical epigenetic elicitation and dereplication via molecular networking
Grantee:Rafael de Felício
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 06/02505-9 - Toxicity evaluation of the azo dyes disperse red 1, disperse orange 1 and disperse red 13 as well as their chlorinated by products using the salmonella mutagenicity assay and cell culture
Grantee:Danielle Palma de Oliveira
Support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants