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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Role of nitric oxide in immune responses against viruses: beyond microbicidal activity

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Uehara, Elaine Uchima [1, 2] ; Shida, Beatriz de Stefano [1] ; de Brito, Cyro Alves [1, 3]
Total Authors: 3
[1] Adolfo Lutz Inst, Ctr Immunol, BR-01246902 Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biomed Sci, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Lab Dermatol & Immunodeficiencies LIM 56, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Review article
Source: Inflammation Research; v. 64, n. 11, p. 845-852, NOV 2015.
Web of Science Citations: 19

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced during l-arginine metabolism. In addition to its physiological activities in vascular and neuronal functions, its role in the immune system as a microbicide and tumor-killing mediator has been well described, as well as its release by activated macrophages. Furthermore, NO is produced by a variety of immune and non-immune cells and is involved in the regulation of several immune functions, such as T-cell polarization and suppression. Viral infections generally promote NO production; however, according to its concentration, NO can trigger different effector mechanisms in immune responses. NO can activate the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), can increase the cytoplasmic p53 tumor suppressor molecule, and can modify host and viral molecules by nitrosylation. Because of its microbicide function, NO has frequently been considered a protective mediator in viral infections; however, in some cases NO could be deleterious, potentiating inflammation or contributing to virus latency. Thus, advances in the knowledge of the role of NO in immunomodulation and in the pathogenesis of viral diseases could contribute not only to the development of vaccines and therapeutic strategies but also to the use of its metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) and the enzyme responsible for its production (iNOS) as prognostic markers of some of these viral infections. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/03563-6 - Influence of nitric oxide in the immune response mediated by activation of toll-like receptors in newborn mice
Grantee:Cyro Alves de Brito
Support type: Regular Research Grants