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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Mutations in the Schmallenberg Virus Gc Glycoprotein Facilitate Cellular Protein Synthesis Shutoff and Restore Pathogenicity of NSs Deletion Mutants in Mice

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Varela, Mariana [1] ; Pinto, Rute Maria [1, 2] ; Caporale, Marco [1, 3] ; Piras, Ilaria M. [1] ; Taggart, Aislynn [1] ; Seehusen, Frauke [4, 5] ; Hahn, Kerstin [4, 5] ; Janowicz, Anna [1] ; de Souza, William Marciel [6] ; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang [4, 5] ; Shi, Xiaohong [1] ; Palmarini, Massimo [1]
Total Authors: 12
[1] Univ Glasgow, MRC, Ctr Virus Res, Glasgow, Lanark - Scotland
[2] Univ Edinburgh, Roslin Inst, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian - Scotland
[3] Ist Zooprofilatt Sperimentale Abruzzo & Molise G, Teramo - Italy
[4] Univ Vet Med, Dept Pathol, Hannover - Germany
[5] Univ Vet Med, Ctr Syst Neurosci, Hannover - Germany
[6] Univ Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto Sch Med, Virol Res Ctr, BR-14049 Ribeirao Preto - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: Journal of Virology; v. 90, n. 11, p. 5440-5450, JUN 2016.
Web of Science Citations: 6

Serial passage of viruses in cell culture has been traditionally used to attenuate virulence and identify determinants of viral pathogenesis. In a previous study, we found that a strain of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) serially passaged in tissue culture (termed SBVp32) unexpectedly displayed increased pathogenicity in suckling mice compared to wild-type SBV. In this study, we mapped the determinants of SBVp32 virulence to the viral genome M segment. SBVp32 virulence is associated with the capacity of this virus to reach high titers in the brains of experimentally infected suckling mice. We also found that the Gc glycoprotein, encoded by the M segment of SBVp32, facilitates host cell protein shutoff in vitro. Interestingly, while the M segment of SBVp32 is a virulence factor, we found that the S segment of the same virus confers by itself an attenuated phenotype to wild-type SBV, as it has lost the ability to block the innate immune system of the host. Single mutations present in the Gc glycoprotein of SBVp32 are sufficient to compensate for both the attenuated phenotype of the SBVp32 S segment and the attenuated phenotype of NSs deletion mutants. Our data also indicate that the SBV p32 M segment does not act as an interferon (IFN) antagonist. Therefore, SBV mutants can retain pathogenicity even when they are unable to fully control the production of IFN by infected cells. Overall, this study suggests that the viral glycoprotein of orthobunyaviruses can compensate, at least in part, for the function of NSs. In addition, we also provide evidence that the induction of total cellular protein shutoff by SBV is determined by multiple viral proteins, while the ability to control the production of IFN maps to the NSs protein. IMPORTANCE The identification of viral determinants of pathogenesis is key to the development of prophylactic and intervention measures. In this study, we found that the bunyavirus Gc glycoprotein is a virulence factor. Importantly, we show that mutations in the Gc glycoprotein can restore the pathogenicity of attenuated mutants resulting from deletions or mutations in the nonstructural protein NSs. Our findings highlight the fact that careful consideration should be taken when designing live attenuated vaccines based on deletions of nonstructural proteins since single mutations in the viral glycoproteins appear to revert attenuated mutants to virulent phenotypes. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/05778-5 - Bioinformatics analysis of data of viral metagenomic of animals from Brazil and Antarctica
Grantee:William Marciel de Souza
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate