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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Cyclobenzaprine Raises ROS Levels in Leishmania infantum and Reduces Parasite Burden in Infected Mice

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Cunha-Junior, Edezio Ferreira ; Andrade-Neto, Valter Viana ; Lima, Marta Lopes ; da Costa-Silva, Thais Alves ; Galisteo Junior, Andres J. ; Abengozar, Maria A. ; Barbas, Coral ; Rivas, Luis ; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo ; Tempone, Andre Gustavo ; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio
Total Authors: 11
Document type: Journal article
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases; v. 11, n. 1 JAN 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 7

Background The leishmanicidal action of tricyclic antidepressants has been studied and evidences have pointed that their action is linked to inhibition of trypanothione reductase, a key enzyme in the redox metabolism of pathogenic trypanosomes. Cyclobenzaprine (CBP) is a tricyclic structurally related to the antidepressant amitriptyline, differing only by the presence of a double bond in the central ring. This paper describes the effect of CBP in experimental visceral leishmaniasis, its inhibitory effect in trypanothione reductase and the potential immunomodulatory activity. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro antileishmanial activity was determined in promastigotes and in L. infantum-infected macrophages. For in vivo studies, L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice were treated with CBP by oral gavage for five days and the parasite load was estimated. Trypanothione reductase activity was assessed in the soluble fraction of promastigotes of L. infantum. For evaluation of cytokines, L. infantum-infected macrophages were co-cultured with BALB/c splenocytes and treated with CBP for 48 h. The supernatant was analyzed for IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. CBP demonstrated an IC50 of 14.5 +/- 1.1 mu M and an IC90 of 74.5 +/- 1.2 mu M in promastigotes and an IC50 of 12.6 +/- 1.05 mu M and an IC90 of 28.7 +/- 1.3 mu M in intracellular amastigotes. CBP also reduced the parasite load in L. infantum-infected mice by 40.4 +/- 10.3% and 66.7 +/- 10.5% in spleen at 24.64 and 49.28 mg/kg, respectively and by 85.6 +/- 5.0 and 89.3 +/- 4.8% in liver at 24.64 and 49.28mg/kg, after a short-term treatment. CBP inhibited the trypanothione reductase activity with a Ki of 86 +/- 7.7 mu M and increased the ROS production in promastigotes. CBP inhibited in 53% the production of IL-6 in infected macrophages coculture. Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of the in vivo antileishmanial activity of the FDA-approved drug CBP. Modulation of immune response and induction of oxidative stress in parasite seem to contribute to this efficacy. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/23403-9 - Rational pre-clinical study of new drug candidates against neglected protozoan diseases using pharmacokinetic approaches
Grantee:André Gustavo Tempone Cardoso
Support type: Regular Research Grants