Da Silva, Joao Paulo C. B.
Vaz, Diego F. B.
De Carvalho, Marcelo R.
Total Authors: 3
 Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biociencias, Dept Zool, Rua Matao, Trav 14, 101, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
 Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Coll William & Mary, Rt 1208, 1375 Greate Rd, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 - USA
Total Affiliations: 2
ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY;
Web of Science Citations:
The scapulae of elasmobranchs project dorsolaterally from their fusion with the coracoid bar of the pectoral girdle, serving as anchoring points for the cucullaris, trunk and appendicular muscles and as articular points for the pectoral-fin skeleton. The scapulae of many elasmobranch taxa are described, with an emphasis on variations in the posterior margin, in an effort to reveal characters of phylogenetic relevance. In particular, phylogenetic information from the scapula was found for some squaliform sharks. Representatives of Dalatiidae, Somniosidae, Oxynotidae and Etmopteridae have a process on the ventral third of the posterior margin of the scapula, providing an additional surface for anchoring the origin of the appendicular muscle: the levator pectoralis. The ventral scapular process in Dalatiidae, Somniosus and Etmopterus is remarkably developed. This contrasts with an absent or weakly developed ventral triangular process observed in remaining squaliforms and other shark taxa. A single dorsal projection of the scapulae is restricted for Carcharhinidae and Centrophorus and provides an additional anchoring point for the m. epaxialis. Most representatives of Somniosidae (except Somniosus), Trigonognathus and some genera of Scyliorhinidae, Proscylliidae and Triakidae have both dorsal and ventral triangular processes. These structures are described and discussed in the context of previous morphological and molecular phylogenies of elasmobranchs. (AU)