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Genetic variability and parentage assignment assessed by SNPs in stocks of the fish pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)

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Author(s):
Vito Antonio Mastrochirico Filho
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Jaboticabal. 2016-04-11.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias. Jaboticabal
Defense date:
Advisor: Diogo Teruo Hashimoto
Abstract

Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a Neotropical freshwater fish widely distributed in Parana, Paraguay Basin. Wild populations of pacu are threatened by overfishing and it is one of the fish species of highest commercial value for aquaculture. An understanding of the pacu genome is appropriate to genetic management in the conservation of wild and cultivated stocks. The main objective was identify gene-associated SNPs in liver transcriptome of pacu. We used SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) to perform genetic variability and kinship analysis for suitable management of this important non-model species in aquaculture. Transcriptome sequencing was done with the Roche/454 technology and yielded 4,110 non-redundant contigs. Of these, 2,051 genes were identified and functionally annotated to reveal genes correlated to economical traits in aquaculture. We found 464 SNPs in 5’UTR (10.0%), 3’UTR (17.2%) and CDS (71,1%), classified in synonymous (70,6%) and non-synonymous (29,4%). We genotyped 32 feasible SNPs through Sequenom MassARRAY platform and we obtained some SNPs related to immune system. Genetic diversity was estimated in wild individuals (Parana river) and in seven farm fish populations (FF1, FF2, FF3, FF4, FF5, FF6 and FF7). There were no significant differences between observed heterozygosity (Hobs) and expected (Hexp) for each population; and also between observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and minimum allele frequency (MAF), when the population averages were compared (P <0.05). In addition, genetic differentiation analyzes showed low genetic structure of wild and cultivated populations of pacu (Fst = 0.064; AMOVA = 93.59% of the variation within populations; P<0,05). Kinship analysis showed most hatchery stations had at least 40% of related individuals, at risk of inbreeding and the need to perform a directed mating program. Our results showed unprecedented genomic resources for pacu. (AU)