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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in normotensive and hypertensive states

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Author(s):
Dampney, Roger A. [1] ; Michelini, Lisete C. [2] ; Li, De-Pei [3] ; Pan, Hui-Lin [3]
Total Authors: 4
Affiliation:
[1] Univ Sydney, Dept Physiol, Sydney, NSW - Australia
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biomed Sci, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Anesthesiol & Perioperat Med, Houston, TX 77030 - USA
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Review article
Source: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY; v. 315, n. 5, p. H1200-H1214, NOV 2018.
Web of Science Citations: 8
Abstract

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a unique and important brain region involved in the control of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other physiological functions pertinent to homeostasis. The PVN is a major source of excitatory drive to the spinal sympathetic outflow via both direct and indirect projections. In this review, we discuss the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in normal physiological conditions and in hypertension. In normal healthy animals, the PVN presympathetic neurons do not appear to have a major role in sustaining resting sympathetic vasomotor activity or in regulating sympathetic responses to short-term homeostatic challenges such as acute hypotension or hypoxia. Their role is, however, much more significant during longer-term challenges, such as sustained water deprivation, chronic intermittent hypoxia, and pregnancy. The PVN also appears to have a major role in generating the increased sympathetic vasomotor activity that is characteristic of multiple forms of hypertension. Recent studies in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model have shown that impaired inhibitory and enhanced excitatory synaptic inputs to PVN presympathetic neurons are the basis for the heightened sympathetic outflow in hypertension. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension. In addition, we discuss the ability of exercise training to correct sympathetic hyperactivity by restoring blood-brain barrier integrity, reducing angiotensin II availability, and decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation in the PVN. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/24935-4 - BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND AUTONOMIC REGULATION IN HYPERTENSION: EFFECTS OF ANGIOTENSIN II AND AEROBIC TRAINING
Grantee:Lisete Compagno Michelini
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 11/51410-9 - Amelioration of the autonomic imbalances of old age with exercise: exploring the molecular and physiological mechanisms
Grantee:Lisete Compagno Michelini
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants