de Souza, Daniel H.
Stuart, Finlay M.
Pupim, Fabiano N.
Hackspacher, Peter C.
Total Authors: 5
 Univ Estadual Paulista, Inst Geociencias & Ciencias Exacts, Ave 24A, 1515, BR-13506900 Rio Claro - Brazil
 Scottish Univ Environm Res Ctr, Rankine Ave, East Klibride G75 0QF - Scotland
 Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Ciencias Ambientais, Rua Sao Nicolau 210, BR-09913030 Diadema - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 3
APR 1 2019.
Web of Science Citations:
The Atlantic Ocean coast region of southeast Brazil contains two coast-parallel mountain ranges (the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira) generated by tectonic activity pulses tens of millions years after the main continental rift event occurred around 120 Ma. Although the short-term erosion rates for the region are established, the relative importance of the factors controlling erosion is poorly constrained. We combine new and published catchment-averaged erosion rates (n = 48) using in situ-produced Be-10 concentrations in quartz from river sediments to establish the regional erosion pattern. The river catchments are (i) escarpment topography, (ii) high-altitude low-relief and (iii) mixed topography, which record how escarpment fronts are migrating inland. Ocean-facing coastal escarpment catchments of the Serra do Mar (epsilon = 18-53 m/Ma) can be eroded approximately twice as fast as continent-facing escarpment catchments in the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira (epsilon = 7-24 m/Ma). The correlation between the normalized channel steepness index (k(sn)) and slope angle indicates that river incision and hillslope erosion processes combine to maintain the high relief. The Serra do Mar catchments define a mean slope angle threshold indicating that landslides are the dominant erosional process when slope angles in excess of similar to 30 degrees Tectonic activity is low and plays no significant role in driving erosion. A first-order relationship between erosion rate and precipitation-temperature across the region implies that climate plays a key role in soil production, river incision and in triggering erosional processes. Although the high topographic relief is a pre-condition for the occurrence of significant erosion, the climatic condition is the outlining factor of the regional variation in erosion rates. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (AU)