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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Phylogeny of Neotropical Sicarius sand spiders suggests frequent transitions from deserts to dry forests despite antique, broad-scale niche conservatism

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Magalhaes, I. L. F. [1, 2] ; Neves, D. M. [3, 4] ; Santos, F. R. [5] ; Vidigal, T. H. D. A. [1] ; Brescovit, A. D. [6] ; Santos, A. J. [1]
Total Authors: 6
[1] Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Inst Ciencias Biol, Dept Zool, Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil
[2] Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, Div Aracnol, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[3] Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ - USA
[4] Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Inst Ciencias Biol, Dept Bot, Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil
[5] Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Inst Ciencias Biol, Dept Biol Geral, Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil
[6] Inst Butantan, Lab Especial Colecoes Zool, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution; v. 140, NOV 2019.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) shapes the distribution of organisms by constraining lineages to particular climatic conditions. Conversely, if areas with similar climates are geographically isolated, diversification may also be limited by dispersal. Neotropical xeric habitats provide an ideal system to test the relative roles of climate and geography on diversification, as they occur in disjunct areas with similar biotas. Sicariinae sand spiders are intimately associated with these xeric environments, particularly seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) and subtropical deserts/scrublands in Africa (Hexophthalma) and the Neotropics (Sicarius). We explore the role of PNC, geography and biome shifts in their evolution and timing of diversification. We estimated a time-calibrated, total-evidence phylogeny of Sicariinae, and used published distribution records to estimate climatic niche and biome occupancy. Topologies were used for estimating ancestral niches and biome shifts. We used variation partitioning methods to test the relative importance of climate and spatially autocorrelated factors in explaining the spatial variation in phylogenetic structure of Sicarius across the Neotropics. Neotropical Sicarius are ancient and split from their African sister-group around 90 (57-131) million years ago. Most speciation events took place in the Miocene. Sicariinae records can be separated in two groups corresponding to temperate/dry and tropical/seasonally dry climates. The ancestral climatic niche of Sicariinae are temperate/dry areas, with 2-3 shifts to tropical/seasonally dry areas in Sicarius. Similarly, ancestral biomes occupied by the group are temperate and dry (deserts, Mediterranean scrub, temperate grasslands), with 2-3 shifts to tropical, seasonally dry forests and grasslands. Most of the variation in phylogenetic structure is explained by long-distance dispersal limitation that is independent of the measured climatic conditions. Sicariinae have an ancient association to arid lands, suggesting that PNC prevented them from colonizing mesic habitats. However, niches are labile at a smaller scale, with several shifts from deserts to SDTFs. This suggests that PNC and long-distance dispersal limitation played major roles in confining lineages to isolated areas of SDTF/desert over evolutionary history, although shifts between xeric biomes occurred whenever geographical opportunities were presented. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/50689-0 - Systematic of the neotropical haplogynae spiders (Arachnida, Araneae)
Grantee:Antonio Domingos Brescovit
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants