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Effect of curcumin analogues, irradiated or not by LED, as antimicrobial agents and inducers of cell proliferation and migration

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Jesse Augusto Pereira
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Araçatuba. 2020-03-06.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Odontologia. Araçatuba
Defense date:
Advisor: Cristiane Duque

Endodontic treatment of young permanent teeth with pulp / periapical infections before completing rhizogenesis is still a challenge for Endodontics and Pediatric Dentistry. Scientific reports have shown that curcumin (CUR), a polyphenolic phytochemical, has several therapeutic properties, including a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action and the ability to induce cell proliferation and migration. In addition, due to its excitatory capacity in the presence of light, CUR has also been used as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy associated with LED (light emitting diode), promoting an increase in its biological effects. One way to increase its therapeutic potential and reduce some limitations of the use of CUR is the synthesis of analogues from small chemical modifications in the original structure, however, maintaining its photosensitizing capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm action of curcumin analogues under the influence or not of LED on microorganisms of endodontic interest and their influence on the viability, proliferation and migration of L-929 fibroblasts. A series of CUR analog compounds (PCR-4 H, PCR-3 OH, PCR-4 OH, PCR-3 OCH₃, PCR-4 OCH₃, PCR-3 acetyl, PCR-4 acetyl) were synthesized by Pabon's methodology. The antimicrobial activity of CUR and its analogs was determined by the Minimum Concentration Inhibitory (CIM) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CBM) assay on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces israelii, Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, with or without the InGaN LED (gallium and indium nitride, with output power of 100 mW / cm², LED tip with an area of 0.78 cm², 60 sec). Curcumin and its analog with the best antimicrobial effect (PCR-3 OH) were evaluated on the initial (72h) and mature (1 week) biofilm of these species in microplates and on multispecies biofilms formed in dentinal tubules by counting CFU / mL and by confocal microscopy, respectively, under the action or not of the LED. They were also evaluated for cytotoxicity and the ability to induce proliferation and migration in fibroblasts, using methyltetrazolium, trypan blue and Coomassie blue assays, respectively. The data were evaluated statistically (p <0.05). Of the 7 curcumin analogues synthesized, PCR-3 OH was the only compound that showed bactericidal activity when tested on selected bacteria of endodontic interest. Its effect was enhanced in the presence of LED, varying between bacterial species. Curcumin had a bactericidal effect for the species S. mutans, A. israelii, L. casei and F. nucleatum, and in some of them, it was independent of the LED. Both compounds reduced the growth of the initial or mature biofilms, regardless of the LED. However, when irradiated, the effect of the compounds varied according to the bacterial species, with A. israelii and S. mutans being the most affected. Both compounds significantly reduced multispecies biofilms when compared to the untreated control, with the best effect being observed for PCR-3 OH. Curcumin was considered cytocompatible from 0.039 μg / mL and PCR-3 OH from 0.019 μg / mL. There was a significant reduction in cell viability when the compounds were irradiated with LED at concentrations of 0.039 and 0.019 μg / mL. The LED, within the parameters tested, significantly reduced cell viability, proliferation and migration, regardless of the compound or time of exposure. It is concluded that PCR-3 OH showed bactericidal activity and on simple and multispecies biofilms of bacteria of endodontic interest superior to CUR, mainly under the action of LED. However, its cytocompatibility was lower than that of the CUR. The presence of the LED affected the viability, proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, showing that the parameters used for antimicrobial purposes were not suitable for application in eukariotic cells. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 18/10857-0 - Effect of curcumin analogues, irradiated or not by LED, as antimicrobial agents and inducers of cell proliferation and migration
Grantee:Jesse Augusto Pereira
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master