da Silva, Thiago H. G.
Furtado, Rafaely X. de S.
Azevedo, Eduardo B.
Total Authors: 4
 Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Chem, CP 780, BR-13560970 Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
 Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos Sch Engn, CP 780, BR-13560970 Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
Science of The Total Environment;
JUN 15 2020.
Web of Science Citations:
There is a consensus among scientists that domestic sewage treatment plants are the main sources of drugs entry into the aquatic environment. Therefore, this work studies the biodegradation of the drugs ranitidine (RNT), diclofenac (DCF), and simvastatin (SVT) (50 mu g L-1, each), in real domestic sewage, using a continuous anaerobic-aerobic reactor with immobilized biomass and an anaerobic batch reactor. The continuous anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated for 6 months with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h. The initial degradation rates and the maximum oxidation capacities (MOC) of the system were estimated, achieving 90, 72, and 62% removals and 100, 93, and 72% of MOC for RNT, DCF and SVT, respectively, as well as 71% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). RNT was degraded throughout the reactor, while DCF was degraded mainly in the two anaerobic chambers and SVT in the first anaerobic chamber. Anaerobic batches were used for the identification of biodegradation by-products (2,6-dichloro-N-(2-methylphenyl) aniline and simvastatin acid), the evaluation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) inhibition, and the estimation of acute and chronic ecotoxicities using the ECOSAR 1.11 software. The present study showed that, even at environmental concentrations, RNT, DCF, and SVT were capable of inhibiting the SMA. Lipophilicities dictated the behavior of those three drugs. The greater their lipophilicities, the greater the SMA inhibition and their ecotoxicity. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (AU)