Guimaraes, Danielle A.
Batista, Rose I. M.
Tanus-Santos, Jose E.
Total Authors: 3
 Univ Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto Med Sch, Dept Pharmacol, 3900 Bandeirantes Ave, BR-14049900 Ribeirao Preto, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
BASIC & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY;
Web of Science Citations:
Hypertension is a highly prevalent disease marked by vascular and cardiac maladaptive remodelling induced mainly by renin-angiotensin system activation followed by oxidative stress. Here, we briefly describe these damages and review the current evidence supporting a potential role for nitrate and nitrite as antihypertensive molecules that act via nitric oxide (NO) formation-dependent and NO formation-independent mechanisms and how nitrate/nitrite inhibits cardiovascular remodelling in hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system activation and oxidative stress converge to activate proteases involved in cardiovascular remodelling in hypertension. Besides these proteases, several investigations have demonstrated that reduced endogenous NO bioavailability is a central pathological event in hypertension. In this regard, nitrate/nitrite, long considered inert products of NO, is now known as physiological molecules able to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients and in different experimental models of hypertension. These effects are associated with the formation of NO and other NO-related molecules, which could induce S-nitrosylation of target proteins. However, it remains unclear whether S-nitrosylation is an essential mechanism for the anti-remodelling effects of nitrate/nitrite in hypertension. Moreover, nitrate/nitrite produces antioxidant effects associated with the inhibition of signalling pathways involved in cardiovascular remodelling. Together, these findings may help to establish nitrate and nitrite as effective therapies in hypertension-induced cardiovascular remodelling. (AU)