Cutolo, Silvana A.
Piveli, Roque P.
Santos, Jeferson G.
Montes, Celia R.
Gomes, Tamara M.
Melfi, Adolpho J.
Total Authors: 8
 Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Politecn, Dept Engn Hidraul & Sanit, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Saude Ambiental, Fac Saude Publ, BR-01246904 Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Esalq Univ Sao Paulo USP, Nucleo Pesquisa Geoquim & Geofis Litosfera Nupege, BR-13418900 Piracicaba, SP - Brazil
 Univ Sao Paulo USP, Lab Ecol Isotop, Ctr Energia Nucl Agr CENA, BR-13400970 Piracicaba, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 4
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY;
Web of Science Citations:
The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L-1 and 6 eggs L-1, respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 x 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 x 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 x 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 x 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of <= 1 egg L-1 and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. (AU)