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(Reference retrieved automatically from SciELO through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa

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Author(s):
Hussam Zaher ; Felipe Gobbi Grazziotin ; John E. Cadle ; Robert W. Murphy ; Julio Cesar de Moura-Leite ; Sandro L. Bonatto
Total Authors: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo); v. 49, n. 11, p. 115-153, 2009.
Abstract

We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of caenophidian (advanced) snakes using sequences from two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene (1681 total base pairs), and with 131 terminal taxa sampled from throughout all major caenophidian lineages but focussing on Neotropical xenodontines. Direct optimization parsimony analysis resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which corroborates some clades identified in previous analyses and suggests new hypotheses for the composition and relationships of others. The major salient points of our analysis are: (1) placement of Acrochordus, Xenodermatids, and Pareatids as successive outgroups to all remaining caenophidians (including viperids, elapids, atractaspidids, and all other "colubrid" groups); (2) within the latter group, viperids and homalopsids are sucessive sister clades to all remaining snakes; (3) the following monophyletic clades within crown group caenophidians: Afro-Asian psammophiids (including Mimophis from Madagascar), Elapidae (including hydrophiines but excluding Homoroselaps), Pseudoxyrhophiinae, Colubrinae, Natricinae, Dipsadinae, and Xenodontinae. Homoroselaps is associated with atractaspidids. Our analysis suggests some taxonomic changes within xenodontines, including new taxonomy for Alsophis elegans, Liophis amarali, and further taxonomic changes within Xenodontini and the West Indian radiation of xenodontines. Based on our molecular analysis, we present a revised classification for caenophidians and provide morphological diagnoses for many of the included clades; we also highlight groups where much more work is needed. We name as new two higher taxonomic clades within Caenophidia, one new subfamily within Dipsadidae, and, within Xenodontinae five new tribes, six new genera and two resurrected genera. We synonymize Xenoxybelis and Pseudablabes with Philodryas; Erythrolamprus with Liophis; and Lystrophis and Waglerophis with Xenodon. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 02/13602-4 - Evolution of the southeastern Brazilian reptile fauna from Cretaceous: paleontology, phylogeny and biogeography
Grantee:Hussam El Dine Zaher
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Thematic Grants