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Ingestion of Non-digestible Carbohydrates From Plant-Source Foods and Decreased Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Review on the Biological Effects and the Mechanisms of Action

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Autor(es):
Ramos do Prado, Samira Bernardino [1, 2] ; Castro-Alves, Victor Costa [1, 2] ; Ferreira, Gabrielle Fernandez [1] ; Fabi, Joao Paulo [3, 1, 2]
Número total de Autores: 4
Afiliação do(s) autor(es):
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Dept Food Sci & Expt Nutr, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] CEPID FAPESP Res Innovat & Disseminat Ctr, Food Res Ctr FoRC, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[3] Univ Sao Paulo, Food & Nutr Res Ctr NAPAN, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Número total de Afiliações: 3
Tipo de documento: Artigo de Revisão
Fonte: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION; v. 6, MAY 15 2019.
Citações Web of Science: 1
Resumo

The hypothesis that links the increase in the intake of plant-source foods to a decrease in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk has almost 50 years. Nowadays, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies confirmed the association between dietary patterns and CRC risk, in which the non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) from plant-source foods are known to play beneficial effects. However, the mechanisms behind the physicochemical properties and biological effects induced by NDC on the decrease of CRC development and progression remain not fully understood. NDC from plant-source foods consist mainly of complex carbohydrates from plant cell wall including pectin and hemicellulose, which vary among foods in structure and in composition, therefore in both physicochemical properties and biological effects. In the present review, we highlighted the mechanisms and described the recent findings showing how these complex NDC from plant-source foods are related to a decrease in CRC risk through induction of both physicochemical effects in the gastrointestinal tract, fermentation-related effects, and direct effects resulting from the interaction between NDC and cellular components including toll-like receptors and galectin-3. Studies support that the definition of the structure-function relationship-especially regarding the fermentation-related effects of NDC, as well as the direct effects of these complex carbohydrates in cells-is crucial for understanding the possible NDC anticancer effects. The dietary recommendations for the intake of NDC are usually quantitative, describing a defined amount of intake per day. However, as NDC from plant-source foods can exert effects that vary widely according to the NDC structure, the dietary recommendations for the intake of NDC plant-source foods are expected to change from a quantitative to a qualitative perspective in the next few years, as occurred for lipid recommendations. Thus, further studies are necessary to define whether specific and well-characterized NDC from plant-source foods induce beneficial effects related to a decrease in CRC risk, thereby improving nutritional recommendations of healthy individuals and CRC patients. (AU)

Processo FAPESP: 13/07914-8 - FoRC - Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentos
Beneficiário:Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Centros de Pesquisa, Inovação e Difusão - CEPIDs
Processo FAPESP: 12/23970-2 - Alterações biológicas das pectinas de mamão com possíveis benefícios à saúde humana
Beneficiário:Joao Paulo Fabi
Linha de fomento: Auxílio à Pesquisa - Apoio a Jovens Pesquisadores