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Dermatophytes and Dermatophytosis: biofilm formation and development of control strategies.

Abstract

The biofilm formation by microorganisms and their potential health damage have been gaining prominence in recent years since it is resistant to antimicrobial communities, to the immune response and the adverse environmental conditions. The description of filamentous fungi, in particular the dermatophytes as capable of surviving in communities is recent, worrying and may be related to the longtime treatment, resistance to some antifungals and common relapses to this type of mycosis, particularly in the case of onychomycosis. Dermatophytosis are the most common mycoses worldwide, reaching approximately 20 to 25% of the population, regardless of gender, race and age. The pathogenesis of these mycoses has not yet been completely unraveled and the knowledge of the involvement of biofilms in the pathogenesis mechanism is still incipient. Most of the antifungal drugs used to treat dermatophytosis belong to the class of azoles and alylamines. Dermatophytes are reported to be resistant to most commercial drugs, not to mention the considerable toxicity to human cells. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of the search of new and effective molecules against these communities of microorganisms. These molecules must also have reduced toxicity, since higher concentrations are required to achieve resistance mechanisms and new targets of action. This project aims to study molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation by dermatophytes and to evaluate the potential of new drugs and photodynamic therapy against these communities. It is intended to identify possible genes differentially expressed in the initial phase of development and maturation of the communities, comparing to differences in post-infection gene expression. In addition, studies will be performed in order to develop prototypes against these fungi in planktonic and biofilm forms from derivatives of protocatechuic acid and chalcones in isolated and nanostructured forms, as well as the use of photodynamic therapy. (AU)

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
GARCIA, LETICIA MORAIS; COSTA-ORLANDI, CAROLINE BARCELOS; BILA, NIURA MADALENA; VASO, CAROLINA ORLANDO; GONCALVES, LARISSA NAIARA CARVALHO; FUSCO-ALMEIDA, ANA MARISA; MENDES-GIANNINI, MARIA JOSE SOARES. A Two-Way Road: Antagonistic Interaction Between Dual-Species Biofilms Formed byCandida albicans/Candida parapsilosisandTrichophyton rubrum. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, v. 11, SEP 4 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
COSTA-ORLANDI, CAROLINE BARCELOS; SERAFIM-PINTO, ALINE; DA SILVA, PATRICIA BENTO; BILA, NIURA MADALENA; DE CARVALHO BONATTI, JEAN LUCAS; SCOTZONI, LILIANA; SINGULANI, JUNYA DE LACORTE; DOS SANTOS, CLAUDIA TAVARES; NAZARE, ANA CAROLINA; CHORILLI, MARLUS; REGASINI, LUIS OCTAVIO; FUSCO-ALMEIDA, ANA MARISA; SOARES MENDES-GIANNINI, MARIA JOSE. Incorporation of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Into Nanostructured Lipid Systems: Effective Alternative for Maintaining Anti-Dermatophytic and Antibiofilm Activities and Reducing Toxicity at High Concentrations. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, v. 11, JUN 5 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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