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Molecular investigation, genotypic characterization and geoprocessing of pathogenic parasites in environmental and human samples in the city of Bauru-SP

Abstract

Intestinal infections and/or gastroenteritis of parasitic origin are considered public health problems related to lack of basic sanitation in under developing countries. The most common etiological agents in these cases are Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as some intestinal helminth species of importance to public health, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia sp., among others, often found in water courses and food contaminated with fecal material of human or animal origin. Domestic sewage dumped without treatment into rivers and streams is common in many countries, including Brazil. Besides contaminating the environment, this practice contaminates the water that ends being used for irrigation of vegetables; these become a vehicle of transmission of enteroparasites for the population that, when consuming them "in natura", can be infected. In addition, these untreated waters are also used to supply many communities along the rivers and streams path. Cesspools, once near streams on rural properties also contribute to environmental contamination. National laws were established to regulate the treatment of water and sewage in Brazil. However, the non-application of these laws is frequent, and cases of enteroparasitary infections in the population commonly occur. In addition to this type of contamination, the manipulation of food by infected individuals and poor hand hygiene may lead to food contamination by these parasites. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of important intestinal parasites in public health in vegetables and irrigation water in Bauru, as well as in human samples and also to characterize genetically the isolates found and to use geoprocessing techniques to determine the spatial distribution of these parasites in the environment. The samples will be collected and analyzed by protoparasitological method, also will be concentrated to later extract the DNA of the parasites and later conventional PCR and PCR in real time. Finally, in cases of positive samples, the genetic sequencing will be done. In addition, for the geoprocessing of the data and mapping of possible susceptible areas, the Geographic Information System (GIS) will be used. (AU)

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