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Effect of temperature sublethal contamination by atmospheric particulate matter (APM)


The emission of atmospheric particulate matter (APM) from industrial processes may contain mixtures of metals, metalloids, and metallic nanoparticles. In Brazil, some regions have been especially affected, such as the areas with steel mills complexes for processing iron ore (Bay of Vitória and Santa Cruz - ES). Recent studies reported that metals from the settleable APM (SePM), by a cross, air-to-water contamination, have been delivered in the Bay of Vitória and Santa Cruz. They can be found in different levels of the trophic chain and bioaccumulate in fish. In estuarine environments, where the temperature is in constant oscillation, the extent of uptake, toxicity and bioaccumulation of metals can be altered, magnifying the susceptibility to intoxication and its adverse effects. Such aspects should be observed in ecotoxicological studies, especially if the investigation aims to understand the effect of pollutants in environments that suffer strong variations in the physicochemical properties of water, as in estuaries. Thus, we propose to evaluate the potential effect of SePM at a level similar to that found in Vitoria Bay - ES, over a wide temperature range. We will evaluate the effect of temperature changes on the potential damage found. We will use combined performance measures of swimming capacity, metabolism, genotoxic damage, oxidative stress and histopathological indices, immune activity, and stress. The study will be conducted on Nile Tilapia because of the vast knowledge of its biology and its use in toxicological research. The results of this project will provide important information to estimate the environmental risks of SePM contamination. Currently, the Brazilian regulatory agency (National Council of the Environment - CONAMA) does not consider this contamination in monitoring protocols (CONAMA 491/2018 - BRASIL, 2018) nor has risk regulation at sublethal contamination levels. Therefore, the results of this study have broad insertion, producing knowledge in the basic area, outlining functional biomarkers for environmental monitoring, and producing data of interest to public management because it deals with a pressing and current problem. (AU)

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