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Energy and protein nutrition efficiency on fermentation, digestion, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa and methane production in rumen buffaloes

Abstract

Brazil is the world's largest producer of buffalo outside the Asian continent. However, there is considerable lack of studies with adequate information on the buffalo nutrition in our conditions. Nutritional data have been obtained from cattle and extrapolated to buffalo, resulting in considerable food inefficiency. Loss of energy and nitrogen by ruminants occur at different levels depending on the system feeding used. Besides economic losses, there is the involvement of environmental problems with emission of methane gas and also the elimination of nitrogen to the environment. The development of improvements in the efficiency of protein-energy nutrition of the buffalo is the most promising way to increase livestock production and the reduction of CH4 that is a powerful gas polluter. Thus, it is vital to efficient assimilation of N for microbial synthesis in the rumen and assimilation of N by the animal with a diet balanced with the optimization of energy and protein to reconcile with the exact physiological application of the animal and reduce the losses of nitrogen to environment. Thus, this project aims to determine the efficiency of energy and protein nutrition of buffaloes in the combination of two energy levels (65 and 69% TDN) and two protein levels (9 and 15% CP) in diets on the pattern of metabolism rumen. The diets will be evaluated in buffalo fistulated in the rumen, including: intake of dry matter in situ degradability and gas production (quantification of methane), using marker digestion, liquid outflow rate, production of volatile fatty acids, ruminal pH and ammonia, counting and identifying the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen and microbial protein synthesis. (AU)