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Evaluation of the participation of T helper-17 cells (Th17) in human paracoccidioidomycosis

Abstract

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a deep mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, can be classified in two main clinical forms: the adult form (AF) in which the disease affect primarily the lungs, skin and oral mucosa; and the juvenile form (JF) characterized by the involvement of the phagocytic-mononuclear system, presenting a faster evolution and worst prognosis. Individuals living in the endemic area of the disease can present the PCM-infection (PI), considered the resistance form of the PCM. Individuals of PI group present a preserved cellular immune response, increased production of IFN-g and low production of IL-10, IL-4 and IL-5. On the other hand, patients with active PCM present a variable response, since a preserved cellular immune response, with low production of antibodies and IFN-g in the unifocal form; until a depressed cellular immune response, with presence of great number of eosinophils, high production of antibodies (IgG4 and IgE), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-b in the JF or in the multifocal AF. These characteristics demonstrate that the immunological response of susceptibility or resistance to paracoccidioidomycosis is regulated by a balance between the Th1 and Th2 responses. Nevertheless, some characteristics are not explained by this balance, as the fact that patients with active disease present a great production of inflammatory mediators and IL-12p40, but do not produce IL-12p70 and IFN-g; as well as, the fact of the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate composed by a great number of neutrophils, which present diminished fungicidal activity. These characteristics can be indication of the participation of IL-17 producing cells (Th17), a recently described subpopulation of lymphocytes, in the disease. Therefore, the objective of this project is to evaluate the participation of IL-17 producing cells in human paracoccidioidomycosis, in local lesions, by the analysis of oral mucosa and lymph node biopsies, as well as, in peripheral blood. (AU)

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DE CASTRO, LIVIA FURQUIM; FERREIRA, MARIA CAROLINA; DA SILVA, ROSIANE MARIA; DE SOUZA LIMA BLOTTA, MARIA HELOISA; ALEGRINI LONGHI, LARISSA NARA; MAMONI, RONEI LUCIANO. Characterization of the immune response in human paracoccidioidomycosis. Journal of Infection, v. 67, n. 5, p. 470-485, NOV 2013. Web of Science Citations: 32.

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