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Effects of high atmospheric CO2 concentration in open top chambers and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (face) systems on photosynthesis and natural resistance mechanisms of coffee plants to coffee rust

Grant number: 12/08875-3
Support type:Research Program on Global Climate Change - Regular Grants
Duration: September 01, 2012 - February 28, 2015
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy
Principal Investigator:Emerson Alves da Silva
Grantee:Emerson Alves da Silva
Home Institution: Instituto de Botânica. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente (São Paulo - Estado). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers:André Torre Neto ; Eunice Reis Batista ; Marcia Regina Braga ; Raquel Ghini

Abstract

The increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is unequivocal and has motivated scientific studies on its effects on cultivated plants and its impacts on ecosystems and food security. Among the most important aspects to be addressed in this context, are the changes in photosynthesis, a process directly influenced by the availability of atmospheric CO2, and also modifications in plant defensive responses to pathogenic organisms, whose consequences, in terms of plant health is still poorly understood. In Brazil, the agribusiness of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is of great economic importance. Most of the Brazilian coffee cultivars are susceptible to Hemileia vastatrix, the causal agent of coffee rust disease, which is mainly controlled by fungicides. One of the strategies to control plant pathogens is the induction of natural resistance, in which the plant produces several compounds that prevent the development of the pathogen in plant tissues, and which has been stimulated with relative success. In Brazil, studies on the impacts of the increased concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) on plant health, in particular of the coffee crop, are scarce. Within this scenario, the Embrapa Environment created the program Climapest (www.macroprograma1.cnptia.embrapa.brclimapest), aiming to study the impact of global changes on crop diseases, using the first FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) system constructed in Brazil. This project is included in the Climapest program and represents one of the components of the network studies related to the impacts of global climate change on plant health, belonging to the Macroprograma 1 of Embrapa. Our project aims to assess photosynthetic responses, growth, and resistance mechanisms of two coffee cultivars growing under enriched-CO2 atmospheres in open top chambers (OTC - open top chambers) and FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, exposed to the causal agent of coffee rust. (AU)

Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
Coffee with more gas 
Coffee with more gas