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Development and evaluation of efficacy of educational material for hypertensive patients

Grant number: 13/06852-9
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: July 01, 2013 - December 31, 2015
Field of knowledge:Humanities - Psychology - Psychological Treatment and Prevention
Principal researcher:Ricardo Gorayeb
Grantee:Ricardo Gorayeb
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Hypertension is one of the greatest health problems nowadays, being characterized by high and sustained levels of blood pressure. When not treated adequately, it can generate complications that represent elevated financial costs to society. The prevalence of this condition is high and adherence to treatment is low, what makes it one of the chronic diseases with major impact in health. Among the factors contributing to low adherence, it is pointed out patients' lack of information about the disease, its risk and protection factors. So, health education actions are studied to better inform the patient and to stimulate behavioral changes and adoption of healthier habits. Written material, such as booklets and folders, are the kind of instrument being used to promote Health Education, because of its multiple advantages, such as allowing continuous access of patients and their families and increasing the probability of understanding the information. However, a literature review of Brazilian and foreign material revealed that they might not be efficient, since they present complex information, few illustrations and small font sizes, suppose a verticality, point out what has or has not to be done, without considering the fact that behavioral changes are a learning process. This project is composed of two studies: In Study 1 it will be elaborated a booklet with information and illustrative drawings directed to hypertensive patients with low educational level; and Study 2 will evaluate the effectiveness of the booklet. For Study 1, it will be performed a systematic review of Brazilian and foreign educational material and, based on this information it will be elaborated the written content to be used in the booklet. An art/graphic designer will create appropriate drawings to illustrate the content, producing the first version of the booklet, which will be named Booklet 1. This version will be evaluated by 5 physicians, 5 psychologists, 5 nurses and 30 hypertensive patients. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of their opinion it will be elaborated the final version, named Booklet 2. A total of 60 hypertensive patients, followed at the Hypertension Outpatient Clinics of HCFMRPUSP will participate in Study 2, divided in two groups: Intervention Group (IG) and Control Group (CG). All participants will answer, in a regular consultation day, a questionnaire with socioeconomic data and an evaluation of their knowledge about hypertension, its risk factors and treatment, and a scale to evaluate the occurrence of behaviors that might contribute to reduce or elevate blood pressure. After that it will occur an individual educational session, where a psychologist will read the Booklet II to IG group and present oral information to CG. When participants return for a new consultation they will all answer instruments that will evaluate their knowledge about the disease and the occurrence of risk or protection behaviors. IG participants will answer specific questions about their use of the booklet. It will be performed a quantitative analysis of data obtained in Study 2. It is expected that the use of the booklet and the educational session will be more efficient to increase IG participants' knowledge about the disease and to modify health risk behaviors and the adoption of healthy habits. (AU)

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