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Brazil-USA collaborative research: modifications by anthropogenic pollution of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the tropical rain forest during GoAmazon intensive operating periods

Grant number: 13/50510-5
Support type:Research Program on Global Climate Change - Regular Grants
Duration: January 01, 2014 - December 31, 2016
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences
Cooperation agreement: GOAmazon Collaborative Research
Principal Investigator:Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa
Grantee:Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa
Principal investigator abroad: Scot Turbull Martin
Institution abroad: Harvard University, Cambridge, United States
Home Institution: Instituto de Física (IF). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Manaus, a city of nearly two rnillion people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides ofnitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting ofthe surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods ofpollution influence to those ofpristine conditions. For this purpose, here we propose a Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) ofGoAmazon. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution. The first objective ofthe proposed project is to understand and quantify the interactions ofbiogenic and anthropogenic ernissions with respect to the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In clean conditions in the Amazon basin, SOA dominates the diameter distribution of the subrnicron particles. How and why is the diameter distribution shifted by pollution? The second objective follows from the first in that, although the diameter distribution is dominated by SOA, the actual source of new particle production remains uncertain (i.e., the number concentration). The second objective is to test the hypothesis that new particles under natural conditions are produced as a result of evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungaI spores as well as to investigate any shifts in this mechanism under pollution conditions, e.g., in consequence to the high concentrations of SO2 in the pollution plume, Combined, the number-diarneter distribution is the key connection to upscaling to the effects of aerosol particles on clouds and climate. Understanding this upscaling under c1ean and pollution conditions, including differences, is the third objective. The objectives will be addressed both by data sets obtained by to-the-purpose instrumentation deployed only during the IOPs as well as by baseline data sets ofthe ARM Mobile Facility in Amazonia (AMFA; specifically, MAOS) and the Intensive Airborne Research in Amazonia (lARA; AAF G1). The additional IOP instrurnentation will include a chernical ionization mass spectrometer for OH, H2SO4, and HO2 + RO2 concentrations, an oxidation flow reactor and temperature profiler in front of an aerosol mass spectrometer as well as a proton-transfer gas mass spectrometer to define mechanisms of SOA production and VOC chemistry, and a therrnal desorption chernical ionization mass spectrometer to study the chernical composition of freshly nucleated particles. The data sets will be put to use in several different upscaling analyses. The implications of the more accurate understanding ofthe number-diameter distribution, including anthropogenic influences, will be implemented in a rnicrophysical treatment of cloud-aerosol-precipitations interactions tailored to the Manaus region. Satellite tools will be used to expand the regional representativeness of the ground and aircraft measurements, including the associated implications ofthe Manaus plume on climate-relevant quantities. The proposed activities and associated three objectives, when taken together as a whole, respond to the Thematic Area of Atmospheric System Research (ASR) of DOE DE-FOA-0000919, FAPESP Chamada FAPESP 21/2013, and FAPEAM EDITAL N. 013/2013. With respect to Science Areas of those calls, the proposal will "improve understanding of the life cycle of aerosols ... including the interaction of pristine and polluted air masses" (80% of proposed effort) as well as "improve understanding of the interaction of aerosols and clouds over the Amazon basin, including aerosol impacts on precipitation ... as well as cloud impacts on aerosoI transport, chemistry, and removal" (20% ofproposed effort). (AU)

Articles published in Agência FAPESP about the research grant
Ultrafine aerosol particles intensify rainfall in Amazon region 
Study reveals how particles that seed clouds in the Amazon are produced 

Scientific publications (17)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DE SA, SUZANE S.; RIZZO, LUCIANA V.; PALM, BRETT B.; CAMPUZANO-JOST, PEDRO; DAY, DOUGLAS A.; YEE, LINDSAY D.; WERNIS, REBECCA; ISAACMAN-VANWERTZ, GABRIEL; BRITO, JOEL; CARBONE, SAMARA; LIU, YINGJUN J.; SEDLACEK, ARTHUR; SPRINGSTON, STEPHEN; GOLDSTEIN, ALLEN H.; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; ALEXANDER, M. LIZABETH; ARTAXO, PAULO; JIMENEZ, JOSE L.; MARTIN, SCOT T. Contributions of biomass-burning, urban, and biogenic emissions to the concentrations and light-absorbing properties of particulate matter in central Amazonia during the dry season. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 19, n. 12, p. 7973-8001, JUN 18 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
ROSARIO, NILTON E.; SAUINI, THAMARA; PAULIQUEVIS, THEOTONIO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; YAMASOE, MARCIA A.; BARJA, BORIS. Aerosol optical depth retrievals in central Amazonia from a multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer calibrated on-site. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 12, n. 2, p. 921-934, FEB 11 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
GLASIUS, MARIANNE; BERING, MADS S.; YEE, LINDSAY D.; DE SA, SUZANE S.; ISAACMAN-VANWERTZ, GABRIEL; WERNIS, REBECCA A.; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; ALEXANDER, M. LIZABETH; PALM, BRETT B.; HU, WEIWEI; CAMPUZANO-JOST, PEDRO; DAY, DOUGLAS A.; JIMENEZ, JOSE L.; SHRIVASTAVA, MANISH; MARTIN, SCOT T.; GOLDSTEIN, ALLEN H. Organosulfates in aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazon. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-PROCESSES & IMPACTS, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1546-1558, NOV 1 2018. Web of Science Citations: 1.
CIRINO, GLAUBER; BRITO, JOEL; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; RIZZO, LUCIANA V.; TUNVED, PETER; DE SA, SUZANE S.; JIMENEZ, JOSE L.; PALM, BRETT B.; CARBONE, SAMARA; LAVRIC, JOST V.; SOUZA, RODRIGO A. F.; WOLFF, STEFAN; WALTER, DAVID; TOTA, JULIO; OLIVEIRA, MARIA B. L.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; ARTAXO, PAULO. Observations of Manaus urban plume evolution and interaction with biogenic emissions in GoAmazon 2014/5. Atmospheric Environment, v. 191, p. 513-524, OCT 2018. Web of Science Citations: 2.
POHLKER, MIRA L.; DITAS, FLORIAN; SATURNO, JORGE; KLIMACH, THOMAS; DE ANGELIS, ISABELLA HRABE; ARAUJO, ALESSANDRO C.; BRITO, JOEL; CARBONE, SAMARA; CHENG, YAFANG; CHI, XUGUANG; DITZ, REINER; GUNTHE, SACHIN S.; HOLANDA, BRUNA A.; KANDLER, KONRAD; KESSELMEIER, JURGEN; KOENEMANN, TOBIAS; KRUEGER, OVID O.; LAVRIC, JOST V.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; MIKHAILOV, EUGENE; MORAN-ZULOAGA, DANIEL; RIZZO, LUCIANA V.; ROSE, DIANA; SU, HANG; THALMAN, RYAN; WALTER, DAVID; WANG, JIAN; WOLFF, STEFAN; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; ARTAXO, PAULO; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; POESCHL, ULRICH; POEHLKER, CHRISTOPHER. Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei over the Amazon rain forest - Part 2: Variability and characteristics of biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 18, n. 14, p. 10289-10331, JUL 19 2018. Web of Science Citations: 4.
CIEMER, CATRIN; BOERS, NIKLAS; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; KURTHS, JURGEN; RAMMIG, ANJA. Temporal evolution of the spatial covariability of rainfall in South America. Climate Dynamics, v. 51, n. 1-2, p. 371-382, JUL 2018. Web of Science Citations: 1.
FAN, JIWEN; ROSENFELD, DANIEL; ZHANG, YUWEI; GIANGRANDE, SCOTT E.; LI, ZHANQING; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; YANG, YAN; WANG, JIAN; ARTAXO, PAULO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; BRAGA, RAMON C.; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER M.; FENG, ZHE; GAO, WENHUA; GOMES, HELBER B.; MEI, FAN; POEHLKER, CHRISTOPHER; POEHLKER, MIRA L.; POESCHL, ULRICH; DE SOUZA, RODRIGO A. F. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles. Science, v. 359, n. 6374, p. 411+, JAN 26 2018. Web of Science Citations: 27.
THALMAN, RYAN; DE SA, SUZANE S.; PALM, BRETT B.; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; POEHLKER, MIRA L.; ALEXANDER, M. LIZABETH; BRITO, JOEL; CARBONE, SAMARA; CASTILLO, PAULO; DAY, DOUGLAS A.; KUANG, CHONGAI; MANZI, ANTONIO; NG, NGA LEE; SEDLACEK, III, ARTHUR J.; SOUZA, RODRIGO; SPRINGSTON, STEPHEN; WATSON, THOMAS; POEHLKER, CHRISTOPHER; POESCHL, ULRICH; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; ARTAXO, PAULO; JIMENEZ, JOSE L.; MARTIN, SCOT T.; WANG, JIAN. CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 19, p. 11779-11801, OCT 5 2017. Web of Science Citations: 17.
ZEMP, D. C.; SCHLEUSSNER, C. -F.; BARBOSA, H. M. J.; RAMMIG, A. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 44, n. 12, p. 6182-6190, JUN 28 2017. Web of Science Citations: 12.
CARLOS ANTUNA-MARRERO, JUAN; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; ESTEVAN, RENE; BARJA, BORIS; ROBOCK, ALAN; WOLFRAM, ELIAN; RISTORI, PABLO; CLEMESHA, BARCLAY; ZARATTI, FRANCESCO; FORNO, RICARDO; ARMANDILLO, ERRICO; BASTIDAS, ALVARO E.; DE FRUTOS BARAJA, ANGEL M.; WHITEMAN, DAVID N.; QUEL, EDUARDO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; LOPES, FABIO; MONTILLA-ROSERO, ELENA; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L. LALINET The First Latin American-Born Regional Atmospheric Observational Network. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, v. 98, n. 6, p. 1255-1275, JUN 2017. Web of Science Citations: 4.
GOUVEIA, DIEGO A.; BARJA, BORIS; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; SEIFERT, PATRIC; BAARS, HOLGER; PAULIQUEVIS, THEOTONIO; ARTAXO, PAULO. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 17, n. 5, p. 3619-3636, MAR 15 2017. Web of Science Citations: 4.
ZEMP, DELPHINE CLARA; SCHLEUSSNER, CARL-FRIEDRICH; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; HIROTA, MARINA; MONTADE, VINCENT; SAMPAIO, GILVAN; STAAL, ARIE; WANG-ERLANDSSON, LAN; RAMMIG, ANJA. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, v. 8, MAR 13 2017. Web of Science Citations: 41.
BOERS, NIKLAS; MARWAN, NORBERT; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; KURTHS, JUERGEN. A deforestation-induced tipping point for the South American monsoon system. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 7, JAN 25 2017. Web of Science Citations: 18.
ADAMS, DAVID K.; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; PATRICIA GAITAN DE LOS RIOS, KAREN. A Spatiotemporal Water Vapor-Deep Convection Correlation Metric Derived from the Amazon Dense GNSS Meteorological Network. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, v. 145, n. 1, p. 279-288, JAN 2017. Web of Science Citations: 3.
WANG, JIAN; KREJCI, RADOVAN; GIANGRANDEL, SCOTT; KUANG, CHONGAI; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; BRITO, JOEL; CARBONE, SAMARA; CHI, XUGUANG; COMSTOCK, JENNIFER; DITAS, FLORIAN; LAVRIC, JOST; MANNINEN, HANNA E.; MEI, FAN; MORAN-ZULOAGA, DANIEL; POEHLKER, CHRISTOPHER; POEHLKER, MIRA L.; SATURNO, JORGE; SCHMID, BEAT; SOUZA, RODRIGO A. F.; SPRINGSTON, STEPHEN R.; TOMLINSON, JASON M.; TOTO, TAMI; WALTER, DAVID; WIMMER, DANIELA; SMITH, JAMES N.; KULMALA, MARKKU; MACHADO, LUIZ A. T.; ARTAXO, PAULO; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; PETAJA, TUUKKA; MARTIN, SCOT T. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall. Nature, v. 539, n. 7629, p. 416-419, NOV 17 2016. Web of Science Citations: 29.
ROSENFELD, DANIEL; ZHENG, YOUTONG; HASHIMSHONI, EYAL; POEHLKER, MIRA L.; JEFFERSON, ANNE; POEHLKER, CHRISTOPHER; YU, XING; ZHU, YANNIAN; LIU, GUIHUA; YUE, ZHIGUO; FISCHMAN, BARUCH; LI, ZHANQING; GIGUZIN, DAVID; GOREN, TOM; ARTAXO, PAULO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M. J.; POESCHL, ULRICH; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O. Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 21, p. 5828-5834, MAY 24 2016. Web of Science Citations: 25.
BOERS, N.; BOOKHAGEN, B.; BARBOSA, H. M. J.; MARWAN, N.; KURTHS, J.; MARENGO, J. A. Prediction of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes based on a complex networks approach. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, v. 5, OCT 2014. Web of Science Citations: 62.

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